Gibbosporina cyanea is described here as new to science, based on its holotype collected in Sri Lanka in the 1860s. The species is a bipartite cyanolichen in contrast to all other known Gibbosporina species, which are tripartites. The species appears to have evolved through cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence. Phyllidia indicate a cephalodiate evolutionary origin with a continued function similar to vegetative propagules. The species is considered to represent a relatively young speciation within an evolutionary old genus and G. sphaerospora is discussed as a possible candidate for being its closest known relative based on spore morphology. As the species appears to be so different from the remaining Gibbosporina species, it is compared here to representatives of other related palaeotropical cyanogenera, such as Leightoniella, Lepidocollema, Pannaria and Physma. Perispore structure is shown to be a useful character in separating these genera, including distinct clades of the non-monophyletic genera Physma and Lepidocollema. Leightoniella zeylanensis is reported here as new to Japan, and it is concluded that Pannaria lurida needs to be restudied in India and Sri Lanka.