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A Strategic Choice: The State Policy Requirement in Core International Crimes

  • ATHANASIOS CHOULIARAS

Abstract

The article focuses on one of the most intriguing and, at the same time, controversial issues of international criminal law: whether the state policy requirement should be considered as a constitutive element in core international crimes. Adopting a criminal policy perspective, my intention is to contribute to the ongoing discussion by offering a doctrinal and criminological corroboration of the position that answers in the affirmative. Nevertheless, I am not necessarily promoting a normative choice entailing the amendment of the definition of core international crimes, but I rather call for a policy choice of focusing on cases that presume a state policy component.

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1 See Schabas, W. A., ‘Crimes Against Humanity: The State Plan or Policy Element’, in Sadat, L. N. and Scharf, M. P. (eds.), The Theory and Practice of International Criminal Law. Essays in Honour of M. Cherif Bassiouni (2008), 347–64; Schabas, W. A., Genocide in International Law. The Crimes of Crimes (2009), at 241ff., 491ff.; Schabas, W. A., ‘State Policy as an Element of International Crimes’, (2008) 98 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 953. Counter-argumentation for the case of crimes against humanity where the element of ‘state or organizational policy’ is explicitly stipulated: Halling, M., ‘Push the Envelope – Watch It Bend: Removing the Policy Requirement and Extending Crimes against Humanity’, (2010) 23 LJIL 827; Werle, G. and Burghardt, B., ‘Do Crimes Against Humanity Require the Participation of a State or a “State-like” Organization?’, (2012) 10 JICJ 1151. For a reaction to the former article, see Schabas, W. A., ‘Prosecuting Dr Strangelove, Goldfinger, and the Joker at the ICC: Closing the Loopholes’, (2010) 23 LJIL 847. See also, Mettraux, G., ‘The Definition of Crimes Against Humanity and the Question of a “Policy” Element’, in Sadat, L. N. (ed.), Forging a Convention for Crimes Against Humanity (2011), 142–76.

2 W. A. Schabas, The International Criminal Court: A Commentary on the Rome Statute (2010), at 40.

3 M. Delmas-Marty, Les grands systèmes de politique criminelle (1992), at 13-4. C. Lazerges, Introduction à la politique criminelle (2000), at 7.

4 It is posited that ‘the discussion on the policy requirement echoes deeper existential questions on the nature and limits of international criminal law and additionally on the role of the International Criminal Court as the predominant instrument of international judicial intervention’: van den Herik, L. and van Sliedregt, E., ‘Removing or Reincarnating the Policy Requirement of Crimes against Humanity: Introductory Note’, (2012) 10 LJIL 825, at 826. See also Kreß, C., ‘The International Criminal Court as a Turning Point in the History of International Criminal Justice’, in Cassese, A. (ed.), The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice (2009), 143–59. Ambos, Κ., ‘International Criminal Law at the Crossroads: From Ad Hoc Imposition to a Treaty-Based Universal System’, in Stahn, C. and van den Herik, L. (eds.), Future Perspectives on International Criminal Justice (2010), 161–77.

5 Schabas, supra note 1, ‘Prosecuting Dr Strangelove’, at 853.

6 Gaeta, P., ‘The History and the Evolution of the Notion of International Crimes’, in Bellelli, R. (ed.), International Criminal Justice. Law and Practice from the Rome Statute to Its Review (2010), 169–80. Luban, D., ‘State Criminality and the Ambition of International Criminal Law’, in Isaacs, Τ. and Vernon, R. (eds.), Accountability for Collective Wrongdoing (2011), 6191.

7 Chouliaras, A., ‘The Victimological Concern As The Driving Force In The Quest For Justice For State-Sponsored International Crimes’, in Letschert, R., Haveman, R., de Brouwer, A.-M., and Pemberton, A. (eds.), Victimological Approaches to International Crimes: Africa (2011), 3563.

8 See, e.g., N. Bobbio, Stato, Governo, Società. Per una teoria generale della politica (1985). D. Held, Political Theory and the Modern State (1989).

9 According to Habermas, there is a legitimation crisis when structures are unable to demonstrate that their practical functions fulfil the role for which they were instituted, despite the fact that they still retain legal authority by which to govern: J. Habermas, Legitimation Crisis (1988), at 68ff; J. Habermas, ‘What does a Legitimation Crisis Mean Today? Legitimation Problems in Late Capitalism’, and Schaar, J., ‘Legitimacy in the Modern State’, both in Connolly, W. (ed.), Legitimacy and the State (1984), 134–55 and 104–27, respectively. For the legitimating function of human rights in the Constitutional State, see J. Habermas, Between Facts and Norms: Contribution to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (1996), at 82ff.

10 According to Rotberg, the inability of a state to provide security and political goods leads to its failure and consequently to the loss of legitimacy. Rotberg, R. I., ‘The Failure and Collapse of Nation-States: Breakdown, Prevention and Repair’, in Rotberg, R. I. (ed.), When States Fail. Causes and Consequences (2004), at 24. See also, M. Silva, State Legitimacy and Failure in International Law (2014). N. Chomsky, Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (2006). Patrick, S., ‘“Failed” States and Global Security: Empirical Questions and Policy Dilemmas’, (2007) 9 International Studies Review 644.

11 E. Durkheim, De la Division du Travail Social (1983), available at: classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/Durkheim_emile/division_du_travail/division_travail.html (accessed 12 August 2015).

12 Analogous is the evaluation of the position adopted by the ICJ in the Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), Judgment of 27 February 2007, [2007] ICJ Rep. 43. See Chouliaras, A., ‘State Crime and Individual Criminal Responsibility: Theoretical Inquiries and Practical Consequences’, in Burchard, C., Triffterer, O., and Vogel, J. (eds.), The Review Conference and the Future of the ICC. Proceedings of the First AIDP Symposium for Young Penalists in Tübingen, Germany (2010), 191, at 206–14.

13 Schabas, W. A., ‘Darfur and the “Odious Scourge”: The Commission of Inquiry's Findings on Genocide’, (2005) 18 LJIL 871, at 877.

14 See, e.g., Osiel, M., ‘Who are Atrocity's “Real” Perpetrators, Who Are Its True “Victims” and Beneficiaries?’, (2014) 28 Ethics & International Affairs 281.

15 See, e.g., Gross, L., ‘States as Organs of International Law and the Problem of Autointerpretation’ (1953), in Gross, L., Essays on International Law and Organization (1993), 167.

16 M. C. Bassiouni, Introduction to International Criminal Law (2003), at 1–2.

17 R. Bellelli, ‘The Establishment of the System of International Criminal Justice’, in Bellelli (ed.), supra note 6, at 5.

18 I. Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force by States (1963); T. Meron, The Humanization of International Law (2006).

19 1928 General Treaty for the Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact) 94 LNTS 57, Art. I.

20 1945 Charter of the United Nations, 1 UNTS XVI, Art. 2(4) and Chapter VII.

21 Skubiszewski, K., ‘Peace and War’, in Bernhardt, R. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public International Law (1982), Vol. 4, 74 at 75.

22 J. Delbrück, ‘Collective Security’, in Bernhardt, supra note 21, Vol. 3, 104–14. Ø. Undén, ‘The Philosophy of Collective Security’, (1955) 25 Nordisk Tidsskrift for International Ret 3.

23 Koskenniemi, M., ‘The Place of Law in Collective Security’, (1996) 17 MJIL 455.

24 Kelsen, Η., ‘Compulsory Adjudication of International Disputes’, (1943) 37 AJIL 397.

25 Brownlie, supra note 18, at 51. Hoover, G. E., ‘The Outlook of “War Guilt” Trials’, (1944) 59 Political Science Quarterly 40.

26 Bassiouni, M. C., ‘From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court’, (1997) 10 Harvard Human Rights Journal 11.

27 B. B. Ferencz, ‘International Criminal Court’, in Bernhardt, supra note 21, Vol. 1, 99 at 101. B. B. Ferencz, An International Criminal Court. A Step Toward World Peace – A Documentary History and Analysis (1980), 2 Vols.

28 Dautricourt, J. Y., ‘The Concept of International Criminal Jurisdiction – Definition and Limitation of the Subject’, in Bassiouni, M. C. and Nanda, V. (eds.), A Treatise on International Criminal Law (1973), Vol. 1, 636 at 644.

29 Sadat, L. N., ‘Understanding the Complexities of International Criminal Tribunal Jurisdiction’, in Schabas, W. A. and Bernaz, N. (eds.), Routledge Handbook of International Criminal Law (2011), 197 at 197–8.

30 International Law Commission, Historical Survey of the Question of International Criminal Jurisdiction (Memorandum Submitted by the Secretary-General), UN Doc. A/CN/4/7/Rev.1 (1949). Pella, V. V., ‘Towards an International Criminal Court’, (1950) 44 AJIL 3750.

31 Perret, R.-L., ‘Doctrinal Bases for International Penal Jurisdiction’, in Stone, J. and Woetzel, R. K. (eds.), Toward a Feasible International Criminal Court (1970), 142–55.

32 For an overview see R.-M. Reeder, The Establishment of an International Criminal Court. Some General Problems (1962).

33 V. V. Pella, La Criminalité Collective des Etats et le Droit Pénal de l'Avenir (1926), at 163ff. Q. Saldaña, ‘La Justice criminelle internationale’, in Association internationale de Droit pénal, Premier Congrès International de Droit Pénal, Actes du Congrès, Bruxelles (26–29 juillet 1926) (1927), 392–409. A. Sottile, Le Problème de la création d'une Cour Pénale Internationale Permanente (1951), at 131, 161ff, 192ff.

34 N. Politis, Les Nouvelles Tendances du Droit International (1927), at 128ff. Glaser, S., ‘L'Etat entant que personne morale est-il pénalement responsable?’, (1948) 5 Revue de Droit pénal et de Criminologie, 425. Eustathiades, G., ‘Les sujets du droit international et la responsabilité internationale: nouvelles tendances’, 84 Recueil des cours de l'Académie de Droit International de la Haye (1953-III), 397 at 434–58.

35 Reshetov, I. A., ‘Groundless of the Doctrine of Act of State’ and ‘Responsibility for the Execution of Criminal Orders’, both in Ginsburgs, G. and Kudriavtsev, V. N. (eds.), The Nuremberg Trial and International Law (1990) 117–18 and 118–20, respectively.

36 Klip, A., ‘Complementarity and Concurrent Jurisdiction’, in Association International de Droit Pénal, International Criminal Law: Quo Vandis?, Proceedings of the International Conference held in Siracura, Italy, 28 November – 3 December 2002 (2004), 173–97.

37 H. Olásolo, Corte Penal Internacional ¿Dónde Investigar? Especial Referencia a la Fiscalía en el Proceso de Activación (2003), at 199ff.

38 C. Harper (ed.), Impunity. An Ethical Perspective. Six Case Studies from Latin America (1996); K. Ambos, Impunidad y Derecho Penal Internacional (1999); L. Joinet (dir.), Lutter contre l'impunité (2002); I. Delgado (ed.), Impunidad y derecho a la memoria (2002).

39 Schabas, supra note 1, ‘State Policy as an Element’, at 974.

40 A. Cassese, International Criminal Law (2008), at 36–41. G. Werle, ‘General Principles of International Criminal Law’, in Cassese, supra note 4, 54 at 55.

41 Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 114ff.

42 Cryer, R., ‘The Doctrinal Foundations of International Criminalization’, in Bassiouni, M. C. (ed.), International Criminal Law (2008), Vol. 1, 107 at 111–13.

43 And it is further explained that: ‘Until that time, international law was instrumental in allowing states to better organize the joint repression of certain criminal offences, more specifically those that damages their collective interests and had a strong transnational dimension’. Gaeta, supra note 6, at 169.

44 UN General Assembly, Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its Forty-Eighth Session, UN Doc. A/RES 51/160 (1996).

45 Un Doc. A/CONF.183/9 (1998).

46 UN General Assembly, Formulation of the Principles Recognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Trial and the Judgement of the Tribunal, UN Doc. A/RES 177(ΙI) (1947).

47 J. Spiropoulos, ‘Draft Code of Offences against the Peace and Security of Mankind – Report by J. Spiropoulos, Special Rapporteur’, UN Doc. A/CN.4/25, 1950 YILC, Vol. II, 253 at 257–9.

48 Ibid., at 260–1.

49 International Law Commission, ‘Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Third Session, 16 May to 27 July 1951’, UN Doc. A/CN.4/48 and Corr. 1 & 2, 1951 YILC, Vol. II, 133 at 134.

50 Ibid., at 134–7; International Law Commission, ‘Report of the International Law Commission Covering the Work of its Sixth Session, 3–28 July 1954’, UN Doc. A/CN.4/88, 1954 YILC, Vol. II, 149–52.

51 General Assembly, Definition of Aggression, A/RES 3314(ΧΧIX) (1974).

52 General Assembly, Draft Code of Offences against the Peace and Security of Mankind, A/RES 897(IX) (1954).

53 D. Thiam, ‘Third Report on the Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind by Mr. Doudou Thiam, Special Rapporteur’, UN Doc. A/CN.4/387 and Corr. 1 and Corr. 2, 1985 YILC, Vol. II(1), 63 at 65–66.

54 International Law Commission, ‘Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Thirty-Seventh Session, 6 May – 26 July 1985’, UN Doc. A/40/10, 1985 YILC, Vol. II(2), at 13–14.

55 In the commentary it is noted that ‘individual’ means natural person. What is more, ‘the act for which an individual is responsible might also be attributable to a State if the individual acted as an “agent of the State”, “on behalf of the State”, “in the name of the State” or as a de facto agent, without any legal power. For this reason, Art. 4 (Responsibility of States) establishes that the criminal responsibility of individuals is “without prejudice to any question of the responsibility of States under international law”’. International Law Commission, ‘Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Forty-Eighth Session, 6 May–26 July 1996’, UN Doc. A/51/10, 1996 YILC, Vol. II(2), at 18–19.

56 Ibid., at 42–43.

57 UN Doc. A/CN.4/387 and Corr. 1 and Corr. 2 (1985), at 68–71. See also UN Doc. A/40/10 (1985), at 14–15.

58 UN Doc. A/51/10 (1996), at 17.

59 D. Thiam, ‘Thirteenth Report on the Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind by Mr. Doudou Thiam, Special Rapporteur’, UN Doc. A/CN.4/666, 1995 YILC, Vol. II(1), 33 at 35.

60 At para. 4 of the commentary it is noted that ‘the words “aggression committed by a State” clearly indicate that such a violation of the law by a State is a sine qua non condition for the possible attribution to an individual of responsibility for a crime of aggression’. UN Doc. A/51/10 (1996), 43.

61 Ibid., 45.

62 General Assembly, International Criminal Responsibility of Individuals and Entities Engaged in Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs Across National Frontiers and Other Transnational Criminal Activities,UN Doc. A/RES 44/39 (1989).

63 International Law Commission, ‘Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Forty-Sixth Session, 2 May–22 July 1994’, UN Doc. A/49/10, 1994 YILC, Vol. II (part II), at 20–73.

64 It is observed that ‘the need for an international court is the result of a broad, common, shared supranational basis of evaluations, principles, interests and rights of a “higher” nature’. Picotti, L., ‘Criminally Protected Legal Interests at the International Level after the Rome Statute’, in Politi, M. and Nesi, G. (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Challenge to Impunity (2001), at 259.

65 Werle, supra note 40, at 55.

66 Schabas, supra note 2, at 108.

67 R. Borsari, Diritto Punitivo Sovranazionale come Sistema (2007), at 93ff.

68 Triffterer, O., ‘Preliminary Remarks. The Permanent International Criminal Court – Idea and Reality’, in Triffterer, O. (ed.), Commentary on the Rome Statue of the International Criminal Court: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article (2008), 1547.

69 G. Werle, Principles of International Criminal Law (2009), at 32.

70 Cassese, supra note 40, at 54.

71 International Criminal Court, Elements of Crimes, Arts. 6(a)(4), (b)(4), (c)(4), (d)(4).

72 See R. Murphy, ‘Gravity Issues and the International Criminal Court’, (2006) 17 CLF 281–315. M. M. Εl Zeidy, ‘The Gravity Threshold Under The Statute Of The International Criminal Court’, (2008) 19 CLF 35.

73 Schabas, W. A., ‘Prosecutorial Discretion and Gravity’, in Stahn, C. and Sluiter, G. (eds.), The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court (2009), 229–46.

74 J. Y. Dautricourt, ‘Le Droit Pénal dans l'Ordre Public Universel’, (1948) Revue de Science Criminelle et de Droit Pénal Comparé, 483–519. Yarnold, B. M., ‘The Doctrinal Basis for the International Criminalization Process’, in Bassiouni, M. C. (ed.), International Criminal Law (1999), Vol. 1, 127–52.

75 A. Gil Gil, El Genocidio y otros crímenes internacionales (1999), at 20–21.

76 Yacoubian, G. E., ‘The (In)significance of Genocidal Behaviour to the Discipline of Criminology’, (2000) 34 Crime, Law and Social Change 7.

77 Smeulers, A. and Haveman, R. (eds.), Supranational Criminology: Toward a Criminology of International Crimes (2008). C. Mullins and D. Rothe, Blood, Power, and Bedlam. Violations of International Criminal Law in Post-Colonial Africa (2008).

78 Laufer, W. S., ‘The Forgotten Criminology of Genocide’, in Laufer, W. S. and Adler, F. (eds.), The Criminology of Criminal Law (1999), 7182; Morrison, W., ‘Criminology, Genocide, and Modernity: Remarks on the Companion that Criminology Ignored’, in Sumner, C. (ed.), The Blackwell Companion of Criminology (2004), 6888; R. Haveman and A. Smeulers, ‘Criminology in a State of Denial – Towards a Criminology of International Crimes: Supranational Criminology’, in Smeulers and Haveman, supra note 77, 3–15.

79 Chouliaras, A., ‘Bridging the Gap between Criminological Theory and Penal Theory within the International Criminal Justice System’, (2014) 22 European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 249. See also D. Rothe and C. Mullins, ‘Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in Central Africa: A Criminological Explanation’, in Smeulers and Haveman, supra note 77, 135–58.

80 A. Ceretti, ‘Collective Violence and International Crimes’, in Cassese, supra note 4, 5–15; A. Smeulers (ed.), Collective Violence and International Criminal Justice: An Interdisciplinary Approach (2010).

81 S. E. Barkan and L. L. Snowden, Collective Violence (2001), at 1–4.

82 Summers, C. and Markusen, Ε., ‘Preface’, in Summers, C. and Markusen, Ε. (eds.), Collective Violence. Harmful Behaviour in Groups and Governments (1999), at ix.

83 Zwi, A. B., Garfield, Ρ., and Loretti, Α., ‘Collective Violence’, in Krug, E. G.et al. (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health (2002), at 215.

84 Barkan and Snowden, supra note 81, at 5–6.

85 C. Tilly, The Politics of Collective Violence (2003), at 26.

86 Governmental capacity refers to the control of resources, activities, and population within a territory, whereas democracy touches on the existence of broad and equal relations of communication and control between the population and the state, ibid., at 41.

87 Summers and Markusen, supra note 82, at ix.

88 Drumbl, M. A., ‘Collective Violence and Individual Punishment: The Criminality of Mass Atrocity’, (2005) 99 Northwestern University Law Review 539 at 566ff.

89 C. Bijleveld, ‘Missing Pieces. Some Thoughts on the Methodology of the Empirical Study of International Crimes and other Gross Human Rights Violations’, in Smeulers and Haveman, supra note 77, 77–97; C. Bijleveld, A. Morssinkhof, and A. Smeulers, ‘Counting the Countless. Rape Victimisation during the Rwandan Genocide’, (2009) 19 ICJR 208. C. Bijleveld, ‘On Research Methods for International Crimes – Methodological Issues in the Empirical Study of International Crimes’, Α. Hoover Green, ‘Learning the Hard Way at the ICTY: Statistical Evidence of Human Rights Violations in an Adversarial Information Environment’, both in Smeulers, supra note 80, 275–96, 325–52, respectively. Straus, S., ‘How Many Perpetrators were there in the Rwandan Genocide? An Estimate’, (2004) 6 Journal of Genocide Research 85.

90 Χ. Agirre Aranburu, ‘Methodology for the Criminal Investigation of International Crimes’, in Smeulers, supra note 80, 353–79.

91 Turković, K., ‘Overview of the Victimological Data Related to War in Croatia’, (2002) 10 European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 202; Kiza, E., ‘Victimization in Wars – A Framework for Further Inquiry’, in Ewald, U. and Turković, K. (eds.), Large-Scale Victimization as a Potential Source of Terrorist Activities (2006), 7388; E. Kiza, C. Rathgeber, and H.-C. Rohne, Victims of War: An Empirical Study on War Victimization and Victims’ Attitudes towards Addressing Atrocities (2006).

92 J. Conroy, Unspeakable Acts, Ordinary People. The Dynamics of Torture (2000); M. Huggins, M. Haritos-Fatouros, P. G. Zimbardo, Violence Workers. Police Torturers and Murderers Reconstruct Brazilian Atrocities (2002); Neubacher, F., ‘How Can it Happen that Horrendous State Crimes are Perpetrated?’, (2006) 4 JICJ 787; Smeulers, A., ‘What Transforms Ordinary People into Gross Human Rights Violations?’, in Carey, S. and Poe, S. (eds.), Understanding Human Rights Violations: New Systematic Studies (2004), 239–56.

93 A. Smeulers, ‘Perpetrators of International Crimes: Towards a Typology’, in Smeulers and Haveman, supra note 77, 233–66. M. A. Drumbl, Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law (2007), at 23–45.

94 H. C. Kelman and V. L. Hamilton, Crimes of Obedience. Toward a Social Psychology of Authority and Responsibility (1989); M. J. Osiel, Obeying Orders. Atrocity, Military Discipline and the Law of War (1999).

95 Tilly, supra note 85, at 7. D. Foster, ‘Rethinking the Subjectivity of Perpetrators of Political Violence’, in Smeulers, supra note 80, 39–61.

96 D. Foster, P. Haupt, and M. de Beer, The Theater of Violence. Narratives of Protagonists in the South African Conflict (2005), at 68–69.

97 J. J. Savelsberg, Crime and Human Rights. Criminology of Genocide and Atrocities (2010), at 51. A. Alvarez, Genocidal Crimes (2010), at 100–102.

98 Parmentier, S. and Weitekamp, E. G., ‘Political Crimes and Serious Violations of Human Rights: Towards a Criminology of International Crimes’, in Parmentier, S. and Weitekamp, E. G. (eds.), Crime and Human Rights (2007), 109–44.

99 Chouliaras, A., ‘The Reason of State: Theoretical Inquiries and Consequences for the Criminology of State Crime’, in Chambliss, W., Michalowski, R., and Kramer, R. (eds.), State Crime in the Global Age (2010), 232–46.

100 A. Chouliaras, ‘Discourses on International Criminality’, in Smeulers, supra note 80, 65 at 70–77.

101 Prosecutor v Kunarac et al., Judgment, Case No. IT-96-23 & IT-96-23/1-A, A. Ch., 12 June 2002, para. 98.

102 Prosecutor v. Martic, Judgment, Case No. IT-95-11-T, T. Ch., 12 June 2007, para. 49.

103 Prosecutor v. Kajelijeli, Judgment and Sentence, ICTR-98-44A-T, T. Ch., 1 December 2003, para. 872. Prosecutor v. Muhimana, Judgment and Sentence, Case No. ICTR-95-1B-T, T. Ch., 28 April 2005, para. 527.

104 Article 21(l)(a) ICCSt. obliges the Court to apply ‘in the first place, this Statute, Elements of Crimes and its Rules of Procedure and Evidence’.

105 Situation in the Republic of Kenya, Decision Pursuant to Article 15 of the Rome Statute on the Authorization of an Investigation into the Situation in the Republic of Kenya, ICC-01/09, Pre-T. Ch. IΙ, 31 March 2010.

106 Ibid., para. 92.

107 Ibid., para. 90 (footnote omitted).

108 Ibid., para. 93. For a critical appraisal of this teleological construction of the term ‘organization’ see Kress, C., ‘On the Outer Limits of Crimes against Humanity. The Concept of Organization within the Policy Requirement. Some Reflections on the March 2010 ICC Kenya Decision’, (2010) 23 LJIL 855.

109 Situation in the Republic of Kenya, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Hans-Peter Kaul, ICC-01/09, 31 March 2010, para. 51.

110 Ibid., paras. 54–70. See also Kress, supra note 108, at 863–6. M. Holvoet, ‘The State or Organisational Policy Requirement within the Definition of Crimes Against Humanity in the Rome Statute: An Appraisal of the Emerging Jurisprudence and the Implementation Practice by ICC States Parties’, International Crimes Database, October 2013.

111 Situation en République Démocratique du Congo, Affaire Le Procureur c. Germain Katanga, Jugement rendu en application de l'article 74 du Statut, ICC- 01/04-01/07, La Chambre de Première Instance II, 7 Mars 2014, paras. 1118–22.

112 Situation In The Republic Of Côte D'Ivoire, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges against Laurent Gbagbo, ICC-02/11-01/11, Pre-T. Ch. I, 12 June 2014, para. 217.

113 See also the arguments in favour of an amendment of Art. 7 ICCSt. in C. Chernor Jalloh, ‘What Makes a Crime Against Humanity a Crime Against Humanity’, (2013) 28 American University International Law Review, at 435ff.

114 Werle and Burghardt, supra note 1, at 1167. In the same vein, Hansen, T. Obel, ‘The Policy Requirement in Crimes Against Humanity: Lessons from and for the Case of Kenya’, (2011) 43 George Washington International Law Review, 31 at 31 ff.

115 C. Frances Moran, ‘Beyond the State: The Future of International Criminal Law’, International Crimes Database, September 2014. The problem with such an approach is that ‘amounts to a misstatement of the proper relationship between international human rights law and international criminal law. While it is certainly possible to say that international criminal law has come to be an instrument to protect and enforce (a limited number of fundamental) international human rights there can be no presumption in favour of a broad teleological interpretation of international criminal law as a back door for a progressive development of international human rights law. The sequence can only be the other way round: only once the obligation of an organization to respect international human rights can be clearly established under general international law can a human-rights-inspired teleological argument to include such organizations in the policy requirement of crimes against humanity become available’. Kress, supra note 108, at 860–1.

116 A. A. Cançado Trindade, International Law for Humankind. Towards a New Jus Gentium (2010), at 372.

* PhD, LL M, LL B, Post-Doc Researcher at Panteion University of Political and Social Sciences, Athens, Greece [].

Keywords

A Strategic Choice: The State Policy Requirement in Core International Crimes

  • ATHANASIOS CHOULIARAS

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