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Disqualified Witnesses Between Tannaitic Halakha and Roman Law: A Response to Orit Malka

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 November 2019


This short piece is designed to be a response to the article by Orit Malka.

Invited Article
Copyright © the American Society for Legal History, Inc. 2019 

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1. See Rodger, Alan, “David Daube: (1909-1999),” in Jurists Uprooted: German-Speaking Émigré Lawyers in Twentieth-Century Britain, ed. Beatson, Jack and Zimmermann, Richard (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 233–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar. The links between Roman and early Jewish law is perhaps most thoroughly explored by his two pupils; see Yaron, Reuven, Gifts in Contemplation of Death in Jewish and Roman Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960)Google Scholar; and Jackson, Bernard S., Essays in Jewish and Comparative Legal History (Leiden: Brill, 1975)Google Scholar. An exciting new voice in the field is Monnickendam, Yifat, “The Exposed Child: Transplanting Roman Law into Late Antique Jewish and Christian Legal Discourse,” American Journal of Legal History 59 (2019): 130CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2. For a survey of the impact of this idea, see now Cairns, John W., “Watson, Walton, and the History of Legal Transplants,” Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 41 (2013): 637–96Google Scholar.

3. Czajkowski, Kimberley, Localized Law: The Babatha and Salome Komaise Archives (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

4. See, for example, Giovanna Pace, Paola Volpe Cacciatore, and the International Plutarch Society, eds., Gli scritti di Plutarco tradizione, traduzione, ricezione, commento: atti del IX Convegno internazionale della International Plutarch Society, Ravello-Auditorium Oscar Niemeyer, 29 settembre-1° ottobre 2011 = Plutarch’s writings: transmission, translation, reception, commentary: proceedings of the IX International Conference of the International Plutarch Society, Ravello-Auditorium Oscr Niemeyer, September 29-October 1, 2011 (Napoli: M. D'Auria ed., 2013).

5. Berger, Adolf, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, s.v. infamia. Those subject to this legal measure are discussed at length in D.3.2. The most recent comprehensive treatment is that of Bur, Clément, La citoyenneté dégradée: une histoire de l’infamie à Rome (312 av. J.-C. 96 apr. J.-C.) (Rome: Ecole française de Rome, 2019)Google Scholar.

6. Malka, Orit, “Disqualified Witnesses between Tannaitic Halakha and Roman Law: The Archeology of a Legal Transition,” Law and History Review 37 (2019): 926Google Scholar.

7. Justinian, et al. , The Digest of Justinian, Vols 1–4, edited by Watson, Alan (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985)Google Scholar.

8. For a critical examination of the veracity of this statement, see Labruna, Luigi, “Un editto per Carfania?” in Synteleia Vincenzo Arangio-Ruiz, ed. Guarino, Antonio and Labruna, Luigi (Naples: Jovene, 1964), 179–88Google Scholar.

9. On the sealing of Roman documents and their use in court, see Meyer, Elizabeth A., Legitimacy and Law in the Roman World: Tabulae in Roman Belief and Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)Google Scholar.

10. Greenidge, A. H. J., Infamia, Its Place in Roman Public and Private Law (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1894)Google Scholar.

11. Ibid., 166.

12. Ibid., 167–68.

13. See, for example, Jaubert, Pierre, “La Lex Aelia Sentia et La Locatio-Conductio Des Operae Liberti,” Revue Historique de Droit Français et Étranger 43 (1965): 521Google Scholar.

14. On this subject, see Dixon, Suzanne, “Infirmitas Sexus: Womanly Weakness in Roman Law,” Tijdschrift Voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 52 (1984): 343–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

15. Riggsby, Andrew M., “The Rhetoric of Character in the Roman Courts,” in Cicero the Advocate, ed. Powell, Jonathan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 165–85Google Scholar.