Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Temporal characterization of laser-induced plasma of tungsten in air

  • Eshita Mal (a1), Rajendhar Junjuri (a2), Manoj Kumar Gundawar (a2) and Alika Khare (a1)

Abstract

In this manuscript, the time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on tungsten target in air and the coexistence of LTE among atoms and ions as well as the fulfillment of optically thin plasma condition are reported. The laser-induced plasma (LIP) of tungsten is generated by focusing the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of pulse width ~7 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz on the tungsten target. The temporal evolution of LIP of tungsten is recorded at four different incident laser fluences of 60, 120, 180, and 270 J/cm2. The several atomic and singly ionized lines of tungsten are identified in LIP. For the estimation of plasma temperature via the Boltzmann plot, the transitions at 430.7, 449.4, 468.0, 484.3, 505.3, and 524.2 nm of Atomic transition of tungsten (WI) and that of the ionic transitions, First Ionic transition of Tungsten (WII) at 251.0, 272.9, and 357.2 nm are selected. The electron density is estimated using the Stark-broadened profile of WI line at 430.2 nm. The McWhirter criteria for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition is verified in present experimental conditions as well as the relaxation time and diffusion length are estimated to take into account the transient and inhomogeneous nature of the plasma. The optically thin plasma condition is studied by assessing the experimental intensity ratio of atomic lines and compared with that of the theoretical intensity ratio (branching ratio). The signal to noise ratio (SNR) is also obtained as a function of time with respect to laser pulse and incident laser fluence. All these observations indicate that the spectra should be recorded within the temporal window of 1–3.5 µs with respect to laser pulse where the plasma can be treated as optically thin as well as under LTE simultaneously along with the large SNR.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: A. Khare, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India. E-mail: alika@iitg.ac.in

References

Hide All
Afif, M, Girardeau-Montaut, J, Tomas, C, Romand, M, Charbonnier, M, Prakash, N, Perez, A, Marest, G and Frigerio, J (1996) In situ surface cleaning of pure and implanted tungsten photocathodes by pulsed laser irradiation. Applied Surface Science 96, 469473.
Aguilera, JA and Aragón, C (2004) Characterization of a laser-induced plasma by spatially resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions: comparison of local and spatially integrated measurements. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 59, 18611876.
Akram, M, Bashir, S, Hayat, A, Mahmood, K, Ahmad, R and Khaleeq-U-Rahaman, M (2014) Effect of laser irradiance on the surface morphology and laser-induced plasma parameters of zinc. Laser and Particle Beams 32, 119128.
Almaviva, S, Caneve, L, Colao, F, Fantoni, R and Maddaluno, G (2012) Laboratory feasibility study of fusion vessel inner wall chemical analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Chemical Physics 398, 228232.
Amoruso, S, Ausanio, G, Bruzzese, R, Vitiello, M and Wang, X (2005) Femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of solid targets as a general route to nanoparticle formation in a vacuum. Physical Review B 71, 033406.
Bauer, AJR and Buckley, SG (2017) Novel applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy 71, 553566.
Bolt, H, Barabash, V, Krauss, W, Linke, J, Neu, R, Suzuki, S, Yoshida, N and Team, AU (2004) Materials for the plasma-facing components of fusion reactors. Journal of Nuclear Materials 329, 6673.
Brezinsek, S, Loarer, T, Philipps, V, Esser, H, Grünhagen, S, Smith, R, Felton, R, Banks, J, Belo, P and Boboc, A (2013) Fuel retention studies with the ITER-like wall in JET. Nuclear Fusion 53, 083023.
Cabalin, L and Laserna, J (1998) Experimental determination of laser induced breakdown thresholds of metals under nanosecond Q-switched laser operation. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 53, 723730.
Chenais-Popovics, C, Rancu, O, Renaudin, P and Gauthier, J (1996) X-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced hot dense plasmas. Physica Scripta 1996, 163.
Cortez, J, Farias Filho, BB, Fontes, LM, Pasquini, C, Raimundo, IM, Pimentel, MF and Borba, FdSL (2017) A simple device for lens-to-sample distance adjustment in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Applied Spectroscopy 71, 634639.
Cowpe, J, Pilkington, R, Astin, J and Hill, A (2009) The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced silicon plasma temperature, density and morphology. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 42, 165202.
Cristoforetti, G, De Giacomo, A, Dell'Aglio, M, Legnaioli, S, Tognoni, E, Palleschi, V and Omenetto, N (2010 a) Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 65, 8695.
Cristoforetti, G, Lorenzetti, G, Legnaioli, S and Palleschi, V (2010 b) Investigation on the role of air in the dynamical evolution and thermodynamic state of a laser-induced aluminium plasma by spatial- and time-resolved spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 65, 787796.
Davis, J, Barabash, V, Makhankov, A, Plöchl, L and Slattery, K (1998) Assessment of tungsten for use in the ITER plasma facing components. Journal of Nuclear Materials 258, 308312.
De Giacomo, A and Hermann, J (2017) Laser-induced plasma emission: from atomic to molecular spectra. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 183002.
Dellasega, D, Merlo, G, Conti, C, Bottani, CE and Passoni, M (2012) Nanostructured and amorphous-like tungsten films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Journal of Applied Physics 112, 084328.
Díaz, D, Molina, A and Hahn, D (2018) Effect of laser irradiance and wavelength on the analysis of gold- and silver-bearing minerals with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 145, 8695.
Eliezer, S, Eliaz, N, Grossman, E, Fisher, D, Gouzman, I, Henis, Z, Pecker, S, Horovitz, Y, Fraenkel, M and Maman, S (2005) Nanoparticles and nanotubes induced by femtosecond lasers. Laser and Particle Beams 23, 1519.
Ershov-Pavlov, E, Katsalap, KY, Stepanov, K and Stankevich, YA (2008) Time-space distribution of laser-induced plasma parameters and its influence on emission spectra of the laser plumes. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 63, 10241037.
Farid, N, Harilal, S, El-Atwani, O, Ding, H and Hassanein, A (2013) Experimental simulation of materials degradation of plasma-facing components using lasers. Nuclear Fusion 54, 012002.
Farid, N, Harilal, S, Ding, H and Hassanein, A (2014) Emission features and expansion dynamics of nanosecond laser ablation plumes at different ambient pressures. Journal of Applied Physics 115, 033107.
Federici, G, Zhitlukhin, A, Arkhipov, N, Giniyatulin, R, Klimov, N, Landman, I, Podkovyrov, V, Safronov, V, Loarte, A and Merola, M (2005) Effects of ELMs and disruptions on ITER divertor armour materials. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 684690.
Freeman, J, Harilal, S, Diwakar, P, Verhoff, B and Hassanein, A (2013) Comparison of optical emission from nanosecond and femtosecond laser produced plasma in atmosphere and vacuum conditions. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 87, 4350.
Freeman, J, Diwakar, P, Harilal, S and Hassanein, A (2014) Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 102, 3641.
Fu, H, Dong, F, Ni, Z and Wang, J (2016) The influence of acquisition delay for calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy 70, 405415.
Fukuda, M, Hasegawa, A, Tanno, T, Nogami, S and Kurishita, H (2013) Property change of advanced tungsten alloys due to neutron irradiation. Journal of Nuclear Materials 442, S273S276.
Ganeev, R (2007) High-order harmonic generation in a laser plasma: a review of recent achievements. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 40, R213.
Gao, X, Liu, L, Song, C and Lin, J (2015) The role of spatial confinement on nanosecond YAG laser-induced Cu plasma. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 48, 175205.
Haq, S, Ahmat, L, Mumtaz, M, Shakeel, H, Mahmood, S and Nadeem, A (2015) Spectroscopic studies of magnesium plasma produced by fundamental and second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser. Physics of Plasmas 22, 083504.
Harilal, S, Bindhu, C, Issac, RC, Nampoori, V and Vallabhan, C (1997) Electron density and temperature measurements in a laser produced carbon plasma. Journal of Applied Physics 82, 21402146.
Harilal, S, O'shay, B, Tillack, MS and Mathew, MV (2005) Spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced tin plasma. Journal of Applied Physics 98, 013306.
Harilal, S, O'Shay, B, Tao, Y and Tillack, MS (2006) Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion. Journal of Applied Physics 99, 083303.
Harilal, S, Sizyuk, T, Hassanein, A, Campos, D, Hough, P and Sizyuk, V (2011) The effect of excitation wavelength on dynamics of laser-produced tin plasma. Journal of Applied Physics 109, 063306.
Harilal, S, Farid, N, Hassanein, A and Kozhevin, V (2013) Dynamics of femtosecond laser produced tungsten nanoparticle plumes. Journal of Applied Physics 114, 203302.
Hussein, A, Diwakar, P, Harilal, S and Hassanein, A (2013) The role of laser wavelength on plasma generation and expansion of ablation plumes in air. Journal of Applied Physics 113, 143305.
Kawakami, Y and Ozawa, E (2002) Tungsten microcone arrays grown using nanosecond pulsed-Nd:YAG laser in a low-pressure He-gas atmosphere. Applied Physics A 74, 5961.
Kubkowska, M, Gasior, P, Rosinski, M, Wolowski, J, Sadowski, M, Malinowski, K and Skladnik-Sadowska, E (2009) Characterisation of laser-produced tungsten plasma using optical spectroscopy method. The European Physical Journal D 54, 463466.
Lazzari, C, De Rosa, M, Rastelli, S, Ciucci, A, Palleschi, V and Salvetti, A (1994) Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. Laser and Particle Beams 12, 525530.
Le Drogoff, B, Margot, J, Vidal, F, Laville, S, Chaker, M, Sabsabi, M, Johnston, T and Barthélemy, O (2004) Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 13, 223.
Li, X, Wei, W, Wu, J, Jia, S and Qiu, A (2013) The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere. Journal of Applied Physics 113, 243304.
Lowndes, DH, Geohegan, D, Puretzky, A, Norton, D and Rouleau, C (1996) Synthesis of novel thin-film materials by pulsed laser deposition. Science 273, 898903.
Mal, E, Junjuri, R, Gundawar, MK and Khare, A (2019) Optimization of temporal window for application of calibration free-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) on copper alloys in air employing a single line. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 34, 319330.
Mercadier, L, Hermann, J, Grisolia, C and Semerok, A (2011) Analysis of deposited layers on plasma facing components by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: towards ITER tritium inventory diagnostics. Journal of Nuclear Materials 415, S1187S1190.
Mortazavi, S, Parvin, P, Pour, MM, Reyhani, A, Moosakhani, A and Moradkhani, S (2014) Time-resolved evolution of metal plasma induced by Q-switched Nd:YAG and ArF-excimer lasers. Optics & Laser Technology 62, 3239.
Mostako, A, Rao, C and Khare, A (2011) Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film. Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 013101.
Multari, RA, Foster, LE, Cremers, DA and Ferris, MJ (1996) Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy 50, 14831499.
Neu, R, Brezinsek, S, Beurskens, M, Bobkov, V, de Vries, P, Giroud, C, Joffrin, E, Kallenbach, A, Matthews, G and Mayoral, M-L (2013) Tungsten experiences in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. 2013 IEEE 25th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE), 10–14 June 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA. IEEE, pp. 18.
Nishijima, D and Doerner, R (2015) Stark width measurements and Boltzmann plots of WI in nanosecond laser-induced plasmas. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 48, 325201.
NIST database. https://www.nist.gov.
Philipps, V (2011) Tungsten as material for plasma-facing components in fusion devices. Journal of Nuclear Materials 415, S2S9.
Philipps, V, Malaquias, A, Hakola, A, Karhunen, J, Maddaluno, G, Almaviva, S, Caneve, L, Colao, F, Fortuna, E and Gasior, P (2013) Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices. Nuclear Fusion 53, 093002.
Piip, K, De Temmerman, G, van der Meiden, H, Lissovski, A, Karhunen, J, Aints, M, Hakola, A, Paris, P, Laan, M and Likonen, J (2015) LIBS analysis of tungsten coatings exposed to Magnum PSI ELM-like plasma. Journal of Nuclear Materials 463, 919922.
Pitts, R, Bardin, S, Bazylev, B, van den Berg, M, Bunting, P, Carpentier-Chouchana, S, Coenen, J, Corre, Y, Dejarnac, R and Escourbiac, F (2017) Physics conclusions in support of ITER W divertor monoblock shaping. Nuclear Materials and Energy 12, 6074.
Smith, P.L., Heise, C., Esmond, J.R., Kurucz, R.L.. Atomic spectral line database from CD-ROM 23 of R. L. Kurucz. https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/amp/ampdata/kurucz23/sekur.html.
Radziemski, LJ and Cremers, DA (2006) Handbook of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 1. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 14.
Russo, RE (1995) Laser ablation. Applied Spectroscopy 49, 14A28A.
Shaikh, NM, Hafeez, S, Rashid, B, Mahmood, S and Baig, M (2006 a) Optical emission studies of the mercury plasma generated by the fundamental, second and third harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 39, 4377.
Shaikh, NM, Rashid, B, Hafeez, S, Jamil, Y and Baig, M (2006 b) Measurement of electron density and temperature of a laser-induced zinc plasma. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 39, 1384.
Shaikh, NM, Hafeez, S, Kalyar, M, Ali, R and Baig, M (2008) Spectroscopic characterization of laser ablation brass plasma. Journal of Applied Physics 104, 103108.
Singh, JP and Thakur, SN (2007) Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Amsterdam, The Netherlands/Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Skrodzki, PJ, Becker, JR, Diwakar, PK, Harilal, SS and Hassanein, A (2016) A comparative study of single-pulse and double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with uranium-containing samples. Applied Spectroscopy 70, 467473.
Surmick, D and Parigger, C (2015) Electron density determination of aluminium laser-induced plasma. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 48, 115701.
Suslova, A, El-Atwani, O, Harilal, S and Hassanein, A (2015) Material ejection and surface morphology changes during transient heat loading of tungsten as plasma-facing component in fusion devices. Nuclear Fusion 55, 033007.
Thaury, C and Quéré, F (2010) High-order harmonic and attosecond pulse generation on plasma mirrors: basic mechanisms. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 43, 213001.
Wang, QH, Kalantar-Zadeh, K, Kis, A, Coleman, JN and Strano, MS (2012) Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Nature Nanotechnology 7, 699.
Wermer, L, Lefkowitz, JK, Ombrello, T, Bak, MS and Im, S-K (2018) Spatiotemporal evolution of the plasma from dual-pulsed laser-induced breakdown in an atmospheric air. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 27, 015012.
White, J, Dunne, P, Hayden, P, O'Reilly, F and O'Sullivan, G (2007) Optimizing 13.5 nm laser-produced tin plasma emission as a function of laser wavelength. Applied Physics Letters 90, 181502.
Winefordner, JD, Gornushkin, IB, Correll, T, Gibb, E, Smith, BW and Omenetto, N (2004) Comparing several atomic spectrometric methods to the super stars: special emphasis on laser induced breakdown spectrometry, LIBS, a future super star. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 19, 10611083.
Zehra, K, Bashir, S, Hassan, S, Ahmed, QS, Akram, M and Hayat, A (2017) The effect of nature and pressure of ambient environment on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and ablation mechanisms of Si. Laser and Particle Beams 35, 492504.
Zhang, S, Wang, X, He, M, Jiang, Y, Zhang, B, Hang, W and Huang, B (2014) Laser-induced plasma temperature. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 97, 1333.
Zhang, D, Chen, A, Wang, X, Li, S, Wang, Y, Sui, L, Jiang, Y and Jin, M (2017) Enhancement mechanism of femtosecond double-pulse laser-induced Cu plasma spectroscopy. Optics & Laser Technology 96, 117122.

Keywords

Temporal characterization of laser-induced plasma of tungsten in air

  • Eshita Mal (a1), Rajendhar Junjuri (a2), Manoj Kumar Gundawar (a2) and Alika Khare (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed