Skip to main content Accessibility help

Scaling stellar jets to the laboratory: The power of simulations

  • C. Stehlé (a1), A. Ciardi (a1) (a2), J.-P. Colombier (a1) (a3), M. González (a4), T. Lanz (a1) (a5), A. Marocchino (a6), M. Kozlova (a7) and B. Rus (a7)...


Advances in laser and Z-pinch technology, coupled with the development of plasma diagnostics, and the availability of high-performance computers, have recently stimulated the growth of high-energy density laboratory astrophysics. In particular, a number of experiments have been designed to study radiative shocks and jets with the aim of shedding new light on physical processes linked to the ejection and accretion of mass by newly born stars. Although general scaling laws are powerful tools to link laboratory experiments with astrophysical plasmas, the phenomena modeled are often too complicated for simple scaling to remain relevant. Nevertheless, the experiments can still give important insights into the physics of astrophysical systems and can be used to provide the basic experimental validation of numerical simulations in regimes of interest to astrophysics. We will illustrate the possible links between laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and astrophysics in the context of stellar jets. First we will discuss the propagation of stellar jets in a cross-moving interstellar medium and the scaling to Z-pinch produced jets. Our second example focuses on slab-jets produced at the Prague Asterix Laser System laser installation and their practical applications to astrophysics. Finally, we illustrate the limitations of scaling for radiative shocks, which are found at the head of the most rapid stellar jets.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Chantal Stehlé, Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France. E-mail:


Hide All
Bally, J. & Reipurth, B. (2001). Irradiated herbig-haro jets in the orion nebula and near NGC 1333. Astroph. J. 546, 299323.
Bar-Shalom, A., Shvarts, D., Oreg, J., Goldstein, W.H. & Zigler, A. (1989). Super-transition-arrays-A model for the spectral analysis of hot dense plasma. PRA 40, 31833193.
Bieging, J.H., Cohen, M. & Schwartz, P.R. (1984). VLA observations of T Tauri stars. II - A luminosity-limited survey of Taurus-Auriga. Astroph. J. 282, 699708.
Bouquet, S., Stehlé, C., Koenig, M., Chièze, J.P., Benuzzi-Mounaix, A., Batani, D., Leygnac, S., Fleury, X., Merdji, H., Michaut, C., Thais, F., Grandjouan, N., Hall, T., Henry, E., Malka, V. & Lafon, J.P.J. (2004). Observations of laser driven supercritical radiative shock precursors. Phys. Rev. Let. 92, 5001.
Bozier, J.C., Thiell, G., Lebreton, J.P., Azra, S., Decroisette, M. & Schirmann, D. (1986). Experimental-observation of a radiative wave generated in xenon by a laser-driven supercritical shock. Phys. Rev. Let. 57, 1304.
Cabrit, S. (2002). Constraints on accreation-ejection structures in young stars. In Proceedings of Star Formation and the Physics of Young Stars (Bouvier, J. & Zahn, J.-P. eds.) Les Ulis Cedex A, France: EDP Sciences. 147182.
Cabrit, S. (2007). The need for MHD collimation and acceleration processes. In Jets from Young Stars, Lecture Notes in Physics. New York: Springer.
Castor, J.I. (2007). Astrophysical radiation dynamics: The prospect for scaling. Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 207.
Chittenden, J.P., Lebedev, S.V., Jennings, C.A., Bland, S.N. & Ciardi, A. (2004). X-ray generation mechanisms in three-dimensional simulations of wire array Z-pinches. Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 46, B457B476.
Ciardi, A., Ampleford, D.J., Lebedev, S.V. & Stehlé, C. (2008). Curved Herbig-Haro Jets: simulations and experiments. Astroph. J. 678, 968973.
Ciardi, A., Lebedev, S.V., Frank, A., Blackman, E.G., Chittenden, J.P., Jennings, C.J., Ampleford, D.J., Bland, S.N., Bott, S.C., Rapley, J., Hall, G.N., Suzuki-Vidal, F.A., Marocchino, A., Lery, T. & Stehle, C. (2007). The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory. Phys. Plasmas, 14, 056501/10.
Dalgarno, A. & Mccray, R.A. (1972). Heating and ionization of HI regions. Ann. Rev. Astr. Astroph. 10, 375.
Foster, J.M., Wilde, B.H., Rosen, P.A., Perry, T.S., Felli, M., Edwards, M.J., Lasinski, B.F., Turner, R.E. & Gittings, M.L. (2002). Supersonic jet and shock interactions. Phys. Plasma 9, 2251.
Fleury, X., Bouquet, S., Stehlé, C., Koenig, M., Batani, D., Benuzzi-Mounaix, A., Chièze, J.P., Grandjouan, N., Grenier, J., Hall, T., Henry, E., Lafon, J.P.J., Leygnac, S., Malka, V., Marchet, B., Merdji, H., Michaut, C. & Thais, F. (2002). A laser experiment for studying radiative shocks in astrophysics Laser Part. Beams 20, 263.
González, M., Audit, E. & Huynh, P. (2007). HERACLES: A three dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code. A&A 464, 429435.
González, M., Stehlé, C., Audit, E., Busquet, M., Rus, B., Thais, F., Acef, O., Barroso, P., Bar-Shalom, A., Bauduin, D., Kozlova, M., Lery, T., Madouri, A., Mocek, T. & Polan, J. (2006). Astrophysical radiative shocks from modeling to laboratory experiments. Laser Part. Beams 24, 535545.
González, M., Audit, E. & Stehlé, C. (2009). 2D numerical study of the radiation influence on shock structure relevant to laboratory astrophysics. A&A 497, 2734.
Hartigan, P. & Raymond, J. (1993). The formation and evolution of shocks in stellar jets from a variable wind. Astroph. J. 409, 705719.
Hartigan, P. (1994). Low-excitation Herbig-Haro objects. Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Proc. 57, 95104.
Hartigan, P., Frank, A., Varniére, P. & Blackman, E.G. (2007). Magnetic fields in stellar jets. Astroph. J. 661, 910.
Jones, B.F. & Herbig, G.H. (1979). Proper motions of T Tauri variables and other stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds. Astron. J. 84, 18721889.
Jungwirth, K. (2005). Recent highlights of the PALS research program. Laser Part. Beams 23, 177182.
Kasperczuk, A., Pisarczyk, T., Borodziuk, S., Ullschmied, J., Krousky, E., Masek, K., Rohlena, K., Skala, J. & Hora, H. (2006). Stable dense plasma jets produced at laser power densities around 1014 W/cm2. Phys. Plasmas 13, 062704/062704–8.
Kasperczuk, A., Pisarczyk, T., Borodziuk, S., Ullschmied, J., Krousky, E., Masek, K., Pfeifer, M., Rohlena, K., Skala, J. & Pisarczyk, P. (2007). Interferometric investigations of influence of target irradiation on the parameters of laser-produced plasma jet. Laser Part. Beams 25, 425433.
Kasperczuk, A., Pisarczyk, T., Kalal, M., Martinkova, M., Ullschmied, J., Krousky, E., Masek, K., Pfeifer, M., Rohlena, K., Skala, J. & Pisarczyk, P. (2008). PALS laser energy transfer into solid targets and its dependence on the lens focal point position with respect to the target surface. Laser Part. Beams 26, 189196.
Kasperczuk, A., Pisarczyk, T., Nicolai, P.H., Stenz, C.H., Tikhonchuk, V., Kalal, M., Ullschmied, J., Krousky, E., Masek, K., Pfeifer, M., Rohlena, K., Skala, J., Klir, D., Kravarik, J., Kubes, P. & Pisarczyk, P. (2009). Investigations of plasma jet interaction with ambient gases by multi-frame interferometric and X-ray pinhole camera systems. Laser Part. Beams 27, 115122.
Kozlová, M., Rus, B., Mocek, T., Polan, J., Homer, P., Stupka, M., Fajardo, M., De Lazzari, D. & Zeitoun, P. (2007). Development of plasma X-ray amplifiers based on solid targets for the injector-amplifier scheme. In X-Ray Lasers 2006. New York: Springer.
Lebedev, S.V., Ciardi, A., Ampleford, D.J., Bland, S.N., Bott, S.C., Chittenden, J.P., Hall, G.N., Rapley, J., Jennings, C., Sherlock, M., Frank, A. & Blackman, E.G. (2005). Production of radiatively cooled hypersonic plasma jets and links to astrophysical jets Plasma. Phys. Contr. Fusion 47, B465B479.
Lebedev, S.V., Ampleford, D., Ciardi, A., Bland, S.N., Chittenden, J.P., Haines, M.G., Frank, A., Blackman, E.G. & Cunningham, A. (2004). Jet deflection via crosswinds: Laboratory astrophysical studies. Astroph. J. 616, 988997.
Lebedev, S.V., Chittenden, J.P., Beg, F.N., Bland, S.N., Ciardi, A., Ampleford, D., Hughes, S., Haines, M.G., Frank, A., Blackman, E.G. & Gardiner, T. (2002). Laboratory astrophysics and collimated stellar outflows: The production of radiatively cooled hypersonic plasma jets. Astroph. J. 564, 113119.
Logory, L.M., Miller, P.L. & Stry, P.E. (2000). Nova high-speed jet experiment. Astroph. J. Sup. 127, 423.
Michaut, C., Stehlé, C., Leygnac, S., Lanz, T. & Boireau, L. (2004). Jump conditions in hypersonic shocks. Quantitative effects of ionic excitation and radiation. Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 381392.
Mundt, R. & Fried, J.W. (1983). Jets from young stars. Astroph. J. 274, L83L86.
Raga, A.C., De Colle, F., Kajdic, P., Esquivel, A. & Canto, J. (2007). High resolution simulations of a variaable HH jet. Astro & Astrophys. 465, 879885.
Reighard, A.B., Drake, R.P., Dannenberg, K., Perry, T.S., Robey, H.A., Remington, B.A., Wallace, R.J., Ryutov, D.D., Greenough, J., Knauer, J., Boelhy, T., Bouquet, S., Calder, A., Rosner, R., Fryxell, B., Arnett, D. & Koenig, M. (2005). Collapsing radiative shocks in argon gas on the omega laser. ApSS 298.
Reipurth, B., Raga, A.C. & Heathcote, S. (1992). Structure and kinematics of the HH 111 jet. Astroph. J. 392, 145.
Reipurth, B., Heathcote, S., Morse, J., Hartigan, P. & Bally, J. (2002). Hubble space telescope images of the HH 34 jet and bow shock: Structure and proper motions. Astron. J. 123, 362.
Ryutov, D.D., Remington, B.A., Robey, H.F. & Drake, R.P. (2001). Magneto-hydrodynamic scaling: From astrophysics to the laboratory Phys. Plasmas 8, 1804.
Ryutov, D.D., Drake, R.P., Kane, J., Liang, E., Remington, B.A. & Wood-Wasey, W.M. (1999). Similarity criteria for the laboratory simulation of supernova hydrodynamics. Astroph. J. 518, 821.
Ryutov, D.D., Drake, R.P. & Remington, B.A. (2000). Criteria for scaled laboratory simulations of astrophysical MHD phenomena. Astroph. J. Supp, 127, 465.
Salas, L., Cruz-Gonzalez, I. & Porras, A. (1998). S187: SCP 1 (H2): A curved molecular hydrogen outflow. Astroph. J. 500, 853.
Schaumann, G., Schollmeier, M.S., Rodriguez-Prieto, G., Blazevic, A., Brambrink, E., Geissel, M., Korostiy, S., Pirzadeh, P., Roth, M., Rosmej, F.B., Faenov, A.Y., Pikuz, T.A., Tsigutkin, K., Maron, Y., Tahir, N.A. & Hoffmann, D.H.H. (2005). High energy heavy ion jets emerging from laser plasma generated by long pulse laser beams from the NHELIX laser system at GSI. Laser Part. Beams 23, 503512.
Shigemori, K., Kodama, R., Farley, D.R., Koase, T., Estabrook, K.G., Remington, B.A., Ryutov, D.D., Ochi, Y., Azechi, H., Stone, J. & Turner, N. (2000). Experiments on radiative collapse in laser-produced plasmas relevant to astrophysical jets. PR 62, 88388841.
Snell, R.L., Loren, R.B. & Plambeck, R.L. (1980). Observations of CO in L1551 - Evidence for stellar wind driven shocks. Astroph. J. 239, L17L22.
Teşileanu, O., Mignone, A. & Massaglia, S. (2008). Simulating radiative astrophysical flows with the PLUTO code: A non-equilibrium multi-species cooling function. A&A 488, 429440.
Zeldovich, Y.B. & Raiser, Y.P. (1966). Physics of Shock Waves and High Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena. New York: Academic Press.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed