## REFERENCES

Badziak, J., Kozlov, A.A., Makowski, J., Paris, P. & Ryc, L. (1999). Investigations of ion streams emitted from plasma produced with a highpower picosecond laser. Laser Part. Beams
17, 323.

Banati, R., Hora, H., Lalousis, P. & Moustaizis, S. (2014). Ultrahigh laser acceleration of plasma blocks with ultrahigh ion density for fusion and hadron therapy. J. Intense Pulsed Laser Appl. Adv. Phys.
4, 11–16.

Basov, N.G. & Krokhin, O.N. (1964). In Proceedings of 3rd International Quantum Electronics Conference Paris 1963, (Grivet, P. and Bloembergen, N., Eds.), Vol. 2, p. 1375. Paris: Dunod.

Belyaev, V.S., Matafonov, A.P., Vinogradov, V.I., Krainov, V.P., Lisitsa, V.S., Roussetski, A.S., Ignatyev, G.N. & Andrianov, V.P. (2005). Observation of neutronless fusion reactions in picoseconds laser plasmas. Phys. Rev. E
72, 026406.

Bigot, B. Key Lecture at the IEEE SOFE conference Shanghai/China 4 June 2017.

Bobin, J.-L. (1974). Nuclear fusion reactions in fronts propagating in solid DT. In Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, Schwarz, H. and Hora, H., Eds.), Vol. 4B, p. 465. New York: Plenum Press.

Chu, M.S. (1972). Thermonuclear reactions waves at high densities. Phys. Fluids
15, 412.

Clark, E.L., Krushelnik, K., Zepf, M., Tataralis, M., Machacek, M., Santla, M.I.K., Watts, I., Norreys, P.A. & Dangor, A.E. (2001) Energetic Heavy-Ion and Proton Generation from Ultraintense Laser-Plasma Interactions with Solids. Phys. Rev. Letters
85, 1654.

Daido, H., Miki, F., Mima, K., Fujita, M., Sawaki, K., Fujita, H., Kitagawa, Y., Nakai, S. & Yamanaka, C. (1986). Generation of a strong magnetic field by an intense CO2-laser pulse. Phys. Rev. Lett.
56, 846.

Davidson, R. (2016) Nonneutral Plasmas.
Singapore: World Scientific.

Dawson, J.M. (1964) On the production of plasma by giant pulse lasers. Phys. Fluids
7, 981.

Ditmire, T. (2017) Proceedings SPIE Conference 10241 paper 10241-25.

Eliezer, S., Hora, H., Korn, G., Nissim, N. & Martinez-Val, J.-M. (2016). Avalanche proton-boron fusion based on elastic nuclear collisions. Phys. Plasmas
23, 050704.

Eliezer, S., Nissim, N., Martinez Val, J.M., Mima, K. & Hora, H. (2014). Double layer acceleration by laser radiation. Laser Part. Beams
32, 211–217.

Eliezer, S. & Ross, D.A. (1974) A ‘Cabbibo’ theory for leptons and the neutrino masses. Phys. Rev. D
10, 3088.

Fan, Z., Liu, Y., Liu, B., Yu, C., Lan, K. & Liu, J. (2017). Non-equilibrium between ions and electrons inside hot spots from National Ignition Facility experiments. MRE
2, 3–8.

Földes, I.B., Bakos, J.S., Gal, K., Juhasz, Y., Kedves, M.A., Koscis, G., Szatmari, S. & Veres, G. (2000). Properties of high Harmonics generation by UV laser pulses on solid surfaces. Laser Phys.
10, 264.

Fortov, V.E. & Iakubov, T. (1998). Physics of Nonideal Plasmas.
Singapore: World Scientific.

Fujioka, S., Zhang, Z., Ishihara, K., Shigemori, K., Hironaka, Y., Johzaki, T., Sunahara, A., Yamamoto, N., Nakashima, H., Watanabe, T., Shiraga, H., Nishimura, H. & Azechi, H. (2013). Kilotesla magnetic field due to a capacitor-coil target driven by high power laser. Nat. Sci. Rep.
3, 1170–1176.

Gaul, E. (2017). Discussion SPIE Prague 24 April 2017.

Giuffrida, L., Scuderi, V., Cirrone, P., Margarone, D., Picciotto, A., Velyhan, A., Peringa, G., Miluzzo, G., Krasa, J., Dostal, J., Kucharik, M. & Korn, G. (2017). Inertial Fusion Science and Applications 2017, Conference abstracts, p. 92.

Hammons, T., Victor, T.J., Lesale, F., Uecker, K., Hausler, M., Retzmann, D., Staschus, K. & Lang, S. (2012). Proceedings of the IEEE 100, No. 2, 360 DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2011.2152310.

Hinkel, D.E., Berzak-Hopkins, L.F., Jones, O.S., Callahan, D.A. & Hurricane, E.A. (2016). High foot implosions in larer hohlraums filled with an immediate gas fill density. IFSA Conference Seattle September 2015, Abstracts, p. 163.

Hirsch, R.L. (1972). Inertial-electrostatic confinement of ionized fusion gases. J. Appl. Phys.
38, 4522–4534.

Hoffmann, D.H.H., Hora, H., Eliezer, S., Nissim, N., Fortov, V.E., Lalousis, P., Korn, G., Moustaizis, S., Kirchhoff, G.J. & Martinez-Val, J.-M. (2017). Nonideal plasma at elastic nuclear collisions for avalanche boron fusion. Hirscheck Conference, January.

Hohenberger, M., Chang, P.-Y., Fiksel, G., Knauer, J.P., Betti, R., Marshall, F.J., Meyerhofer, D.D., Séguin, F.H. & Petrasso, R.D. (2012). Inertial confinement fusion implosions with imposed magnetic field compression using the OMEGA Laser. Phys. Plasmas
19, 056306.

Hora, H. (1964). Report 6/23 Abschätzungen zur Aufheizung eines Plasma mittels Lasern (Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching) July; *Estimtions for heating of plasmas with lasers*. Technical Translation 1193 (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1965).

Hora, H. (1981). Physics of Laser Driven Plasma.
New York: Wiley.

Hora, H. (1988). Nuclear effects and non thermal plasmas. Nucl. Instrum. Meth.
A271, 117.

Hora, H. (2003). Skin-depth theory explaining anomalous picosecond–terawatt laser plasma interaction II. Czech. J. Phys.
53, 199–217.

Hora, H. (2009). Laser fusion with nonlinear force driven plasma blocks: thresholds and dielectric effects. Laser Part. Beams
29, 207–222.

Hora, H. (2013). Extraordinary strong jump of increasing laser fusion gains experienced at volume ignition for combination with NIF experiments
Laser Part. Beams
31, 230–232.

Hora, H. (2014). arXiv 1412.4190.

Hora, H. (2015). SPIE NEWSROOM 10.1117/2.1201506.005965.

Hora, H. (2016). Laser Plasma Physics.
2nd edn. Bellingham, WA: SPIE Books.

Hora, H., Azechi, H., Kitagawa, K., Mima, K., Murakami, M., Nakai, S., Nishihara, K., Takabe, H., Yamanaka, C., Yamanaka, M. & Yamanaka, T. (1998). Measured laser fusion gains reproduced by self-similar volume compression and volume ignition for NIF conditions. J. Plasma Phys.
60, 743.

Hora, H., Badziak, J., Boody, F.P., Höpfl, R., Jungwirth, K., Kralikowa, B., Kraska, J., Laska, L., Parys, P., Perina, V., Pfeifer, M., Rohlena, K., Skala, J., Ullschmied, J., Wolowski, J. & Woryna, E. (2002). Effects of ps and ns laser pulses for giant ion source. Opt. Commun.
207, 333–337.

Hora, H., Badziak, J., Read, M.N., Li, Y.-T., Liang, T.-J., Liu, H., Sheng, Z.-M., Zhang, J., Osman, F., Miley, G.H., Zhang, W., He, X., Peng, H., Osman, F., Glowacz, S., Jablonski, S., Wolowski, S., Skladanowski, Z., Jungwirth, K., Rohlena, K. & Ullschmied, J. (2007). Fast ignition by laser driven beams of very high intensity. Phys. Plasmas
14, 072701/1–7.

Hora, H., Eliezer, S., Kirchhoff, G.J., Korn, G., Lalaousis, P., Miley, G.H. & Moustaizis, S. (2017
*a*). Extreme laser pulses for possible development of boron fusion power reactors for clean and lasting energy. SPIE Conference Proceedings 10242 paper 10241-14.

Hora, H., Eliezer, S., Nissim, N., Xu, Y. & Lalousis, P. (2017
*b*). Non-thermal laser driven plasma-blocks for proton boron avalanche fusion as direct drive option. MRE
2, 177–189.

Hora, H., Eiezer, S., Wang, J., Korn, G., Nissim, N., Xu, Y., Lalousis, P., Kirchhoff, G. & Miley, G.H. (2017
*c*). Laser Boron Fusion Reactor with Picosecond Petawatt Block Ignition, IEEE Transactions of Plasma Science (SOFE conference proceedings).

Hora, H. & Kirchhoff, G.J. (2015). PCT/EP2014/003281 Patent, published as World Patent WO 2-15/144190 A1, priority 23 March 2014.

Hora, H. & Kirchoff, G.J. (2017). US Patent Application 20170125129A1, May 4, National Phase of PCT.

Hora, H., Korn, G., Giuffrida, L., Marganoone, D., Picciotto, A., Krasa, J., Jungwirth, K., Ullschmied, J., Lalouais, P., Eliezer, S., Miley, G.H., Moustaizis, S. & Mourou, G. (2015
*a*) Fusion energy using avalanche increased boron reactions for block ignition by ultrahigh power picosecond laser pulses. Laser Part. Beams.
33, 607–619.

Hora, H., Lalousis, P. & Eliezer, S. (1984). Analysis of the inverted double layers in nonlinear force produced cavitons at laserplasma interaction. Phys. Rev. Lett.
53, 1650–1652.

Hora, H., Lalousis, P., Giuffrida, L., Margarone, D., Korn, G., Eliezer, S., MILEYi, G.H., Moustaizis, S. & Mourou, G. (2015
*b*). Petawatt laser pulses for proton-boron high gain fusion with avalanche reactions excluding problems of nuclear radiation. SPIE Proc.
9515, 951518/1–15.

Hora, H., Lalousis, P. & Moustaizis, S. (2014). Fiber ICAN laser with exawatt–picosecond pulses for fusion without nuclear radiation problems. Laser Part. Beams.
32, 63–68.

Hora, H., Lalousis, P., Moustaizis, S., Földes, I., Miley, G.H., Yang, X., He, X.T., Eliezer, S. & Martinez-Val, J.-M. (2012). Shock Studies in Nonlinear Force Driven Laser Fusion with Ultrahigh Plasma Block Acceleration. IAEA Proc. Fusion Energy, San Diego October 2012. Paper IFE/P6–03, 8 pages (IAEA Vienna 2013). http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/FEC/FEC2012/papers/27_IFEP603.pdf
Hora, H., Malekynia, B., Ghoranneviss, M., Miley, G.H. & He, X. (2008). Twenty times lower ignition thresholds for laser driven fusion using collective effects and the inhibition factor. Appl. Phys. Lett.
93, 011101/1–3.

Hora, H., Miley, G.H., Azizi, N., Malekynia, B., Ghoranneviss, M. & He, X.T. (2009). Nonlinear Force Driven Plasma Blocks Igniting Solid Density Hydrogen Boron: Laser Fusion Energy without Radioactivity. Laser Part. Beams
27, 491–496.

Hora, H., Miley, G.H., Ghorannviss, M., Malekynia, H., Azizi, N. & He, X-T. (2010). Fusion energy without radioactivity: laser ignition of solid hydrogen-boron(11) fuel. Energy Environ. Sci.
3, 479–486.

Hurricane, O.A., Callahan, D.A., Casey, D.T., Celliers, P.M., Cerjan, C., Dewald, E.L., Dittrich, T.R., Döppner, T., Hinkel, D.E., Berzak Hopkins, L.F., Kline, J.L., Le Pape, S., Ma, T., Macphee, A.G., Milovich, J.L., Pak, A., Park, H.-S., Patel, P.K., Remington, B.A., Salmonson, J.D., Springer, P.T. & Tommasini, R. (2014). Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertial confined fusion implosion. Nature
506, 343–348.

Kanngiesser, K.W., Huang, D.H. & Lips, H. (1994). Highvoltage direct current transmission – Systems and Planning. Siemens monographs Munich, EV HA 7.

Labaune, C., Deprierraux, S., Goyon, S., Loisel, C., Yahia, G. & Rafelski, J. (2013). Fusion reactions initiated by laser accelerated particle beams in laser produced plasmas. Nat. Commun.
4, 2506.

Lalousis, P. & Hora, H. (1983). First direct electron and ion fluid computation of high electrostatic fields in dense inhomogeneous plasmas with subsequent nonlinear laser interaction. Laser Part. Beams
1, 283–304.

Lalousis, P., Hora, H., Eliezer, S., Martinez-Val, J.-M., Moustaizis, S., Miley, G.H. & Mourou, G. (2013). Shock mechanisms by ultrahigh laser accelerated plasma blocks in solid density targets for fusion. Phys. Lett. A
377, 885–888.

Lalousis, P., Hora, H. & Moustaizis, S. (2014). Optimized boron fusion with magnetic trapping by laser driven shock initiation at nonlinear force driven ultrahigh acceleration. Laser Part. Beams
32, 409.

Lawrence, V.F. (1978). Momentum Transfer of Laser Radiation to Inhomogenous Dielectrics. PhD Thesis University of New South Wales. Sydney: Australia.

Li, M., Wang, J.X., Xu, Y.X. & Zhu, W.J. (2017) Study of plasma pressure evolution driven by strong picosecond laser pulse. Phys. Plasmas
24, 013117.

Margarone, D., Picciotto, A., Velyhan, A., Krasa, J., Kucharik, M., Mangione, A., Szydlowsky, A., Malinowska, A., Bertuccio, G., Shi, Y., Crivellari, M., Ullschmied, J., Bellutti, P. & Korn, G. (2015). Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven nuclear reactions. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
57, 014030.

Meglich, B & Morwood, D. Jr. (1988). Editorial: Aneutronic Power Princeton 1987. Nuclear Instruments and Methods A271, p. vii-viii.

Miley, G.H. & Murali, K. (2015) Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC).
Heidelberg: Springer.

Norreys, P.A., Fews, A.P., Beg, F.N., Bell, A.R., Dangor, A.E., Lee, P., Nelson, M.B., Schmidt, H., Tatarakis, M. & Cable, M.D. (1998). Neutron production from picosecond laser irradiation of deuterated targets at intensities of 10^{19} Wcm^{−2}
. Phys. Control. Fusion
40, 175–182.

Nuckolls, J.H.
Contributions to the Genesis and Progress of UCF (2007) In Inertial Confinement Nuclear Fusion: A historical Approach by its Pioneers (Guillermo Velarde and Natividad Carbintero-Santamarai eds) Foxwell & Davies (UK) p.493-507 ISBN 1-805868-10. 2007.

Oliphant, M.L.E. & Rutherford, L. (1933). Experiments on the transmutations of elements by protons. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A
141, 259–281.

Picciotto, A., Margarone, D., Velyhan, A., Bellini, P., Krasa, J., Szydlowski, A., Bertuccio, G., Shi, Y., Margarone, A., Prokupek, J., Malinowska, A., Krouski, E., Ullschmied, J., Laska, L., Kucharik, M. & Korn, G. (2014). Boron-proton nuclear-fusion enhancement induced in boron-doped silicon targets by low contrast pulsed laser. Phys. Rev. X
4, 031030.

Rostoker, N. & Binderbauer, M.W. (1996). US-Patent 6,664,740 B-2.

Rostoker, N., Binderbauer, M.W. & Monkhorst, H.J. (1997). Colliding beam fusion reactor. Science
278, 1419–1422.

Sakharov, A.D. (1982). Collected Scientific Works. NewYork and Basel: Marcel and Dekker, 1983, (see Laser and Particle Beams 18, 151 2000).

Santos, J.J., Bailly-Gandvoux, M., Giuffrida, L., Forestercolleoni, P., Fuijoka, S., Zang, Z., Korneev, PH, Boullaud, R., Dor And, S., Batani, D., Chervrrot, M., Cross, J., Crowston, R., Dubois, J.-L., Gazave, J., Greofri, G., D'humieres, E., Hulin, S., Ishihara, K., Kojima, S., Loyez, E., Marques, J.-R., Nicolai, PH., Peyrusse, O., Poye, A., Raffestin, D., Ribolzi, J., Roth, M., Schaumann, G., Serred, F., Tikhonchuk, V.T., Vacar, PH., Woolsley, N. (2015). Laser-driven platform for generation and characterization of strong quasi-static magnetic fields. New J. Phys. 17, 083061/1-16.

Sauerbrey, R. (1996). Acceleration of femtosecond laser produced plasmas. Phys. Plasmas
3, 4712–4716.

Tabak, M., Hammer, J., Glinsky, M.N., Kruer, W.L., Wilks, S.C., Woodworth, J., Campbell, E.M., Perry, M.D. & Mason, R.J. (1994). Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers. Phys. Plasmas
1, 1626–1634.

Tahir, N.A. & Hoffmann, D.H.H. (1997). Development of advanced inertial fusion targets. Laser Part. Beams
15, 575–587.

Tikhonchuk, V., Baylly-Grandvaux, M., Santos, J.J. & Poye, A. (2017). Quai-stationary magnetic field generation with capacitor-coil targets. Inertial Fusion Science and Applications 2017, Conference abstracts p. 81.

Xu, Y., Wang, J.X., Qi, M., Li, Y., Xing, Y. & Long, L. (2016). Improving the quality of proton beams via double targets driven by an intense circularly polarized laser pulse. AIP Adv.
6, 105304.

Xu, Y., Wang, J.X., Qi, M., Li, Y., Xing, Y., Long, L. & Zhu, W. (2017). Plasma block acceleration via double targets driven by an ultraintense circulatory polarized laser pulse. Phys. Plasmas
24, 033108.

Zhang, M., He, J.T., Chen, D.B., Li, Z.H., Zhang, Y., Wang, L., Feng, B.L., Zhang, D.F., Tang, X.W. & Zhang, J. (1998). Effects of a prepulse on γ-ray radiation produced by a femtosecond laser with only 5-mJ energy. Phys. Rev. E
57, 3746–3748.