Skip to main content Accessibility help

High-intensity pulsed ion beam focusing by its own space charge

  • X.P. Zhu (a1), Q. Zhang (a1), L. Ding (a1), C.C. Zhang (a1), Yu. Isakova (a2), A. Prima (a2), A. Pushkarev (a1) (a2) and M.K. Lei (a1)...


The paper presents the results of a study on propagation and focusing of high-intensity pulsed ion beams, produced by a self-magnetically insulated diode of semi-cylindrical geometry at the TEMP-6 accelerator (120 ns, 200–250 kV). We examined the space-charge neutralization of the beam, the energy density in the focus, the divergence of the beam, and its shot-to-shot displacement in the focal plane. It is found that the concentration of low-energy electrons in the beam is 1.3–1.5 times higher than the concentration of ions. We observed additional ion focusing by its own space charge. With an increase in the density of the net negative (electrons and ions) charge of the beam from 3.6 to 9 µC/cm2, the total divergence (the sum of the beam divergence in the vertical and horizontal planes) decreases from 11.4 to 4.5°. It leads to an increase in the energy density in the focus from 4 up to 10–12 J/cm2. To increase the electrons concentration in the beam, a metal grid installed in the ion beam transport region was used.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Yu. Isakova, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave, 634050 Tomsk, Russia. E-mail:


Hide All
Brown Ian, G (2006) The Physics and Technology of Ion Sources. (2nd edn) Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 396 p.
Bystritskii, VM and Didenko, AN (1989) High-Power Ion Beams. New York: American Institute of Physics.
Bystritskii, VM, Glushko, Y, Kharlov, AV and Sinebryukhov, AA (1991) Experiments on high power ion beam generation in self-insulated diodes. Laser and Particle Beams 9, 691698.
Davis, HA, Bartsch, RR, Olson, JC, Rej, DJ and Waganaar, WJ (1997) Intense ion beam optimization and characterization with infrared imaging. Journal of Applied Physics 82, 3223.
Furman, ÉG, Stepanov, AV and Furman, NZ (2007) Ionic diode. Technical Physics 52, 621.
Gabоviсh, МD, Goncharov, AA, Pritskii, VYa and Protsenkо, IM (1975) in: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, Eindhoven, p. 287.
Humphries, S (1990) Charged Particle Beams. New York: Wiley, 847 p.
Humphries, S (1999) Principles of Charged Particle Acceleration. Albuquerque, NM: Wiley and Sons, 561 p.
Isakova, YI and Pushkarev, AI (2018) Visualization and analysis of pulsed ion beam energy density profile with infrared imaging. Infrared Physics and Technology 89, 140146.
Isakova, YI, Prima, АI and Pushkarev, АI (2018) High-intensity pulsed ion beam composition and the energy spectrum measurements using the time-of-flight method. Laser and Particle beams 36, 210218.
Langmuir, I (1913) The effect of space charge and residual gases on thermionic currents in high vacuum. The Physical Review 2, 450.
Masunov, ES and Samoshin, AV (2010) Beam focusing in a linear ion accelerator consisting of a periodic sequence of independently phased superconducting cavities. Technical Physics 55, 1028, 2.
Olson, CL (1982) Ion beam propagation and focusing. Journal of Fusion Energy 1, 309339.
Paperny, VL, Chernih, AA, Astrakchantsev, NV and Lebedev, NV (2009) Ion acceleration at different stages of a pulsed vacuum arc. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 42, 155201155210.
Proskurovsky, DI, Rotshtein, VP, Ozur, GE, Ivanov, YF and Markov, AB (2000) Physical foundations for surface treatment of materials with low energy, high current electron beams. Surface and Coatings Technology 125, 4956.
Pushkarev, AI and Isakova, YI (2016) Applicability of the 1D Child-Langmuir relation for ion diode current calculation. Laser and Particle Beams 34, 368377.
Reiser, M (2008) Theory and Design of Charged Particle Beams. Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 647 p.
Renk, TJ, Provencio, PP, Prasad, SV, Shlapakovski, AS, Petrov, AV, Yatsui, K, Jiang, W and Suematsu, H (2004) Materials modification using intense ion beams. Proceedings of the IEEE 92.
Sharkov, BYu, Hoffmann, DHH, Golubev, AA and Yongtao, Z (2016) High energy density physics with intense ion beams. Matter and Radiation at Extremes 1, 2847.
Stephens, WE (1946) A pulsed mass spectrometer with time dispersion. Physical Review, Proceedings of the American Physical Society 69, 691692.
Yatsui, K, Sai, E, Masugata, K, Ito, M and Matsui, M (1985) Geometric focusing of intense pulsed ion beams from racetrack type magnetically insulated diodes. Laser and Particle Beams 3, 119.
Yushkov, GYu, Vodopyanov, АV, Nikolaev, AG, Izotov, IV, Savkin, КР, Golubev, SV and Oks, ЕМ (2014) Generation of high charge state platinum ions оn vасuum аrс plasma heated bу gyrotron radiation. Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 02В902 (1-3).
Zhu, XP, Lei, MK and Ma, TC (2002) Characterization of a high-intensity bipolar-mode pulsed ion source for surface modification of materials. Review of Scientific Instruments 73, 1728.
Zhu, XP, Ding, L, Zhang, Q, Isakova, Y, Bondarenko, Y, Pushkarev, AI and Lei, MK (2017) Generation and transportation of high-intensity pulsed ion beam at varying background pressures. Laser and Particle Beams 35, 587.
Zieher, KW (1984 a) Investigation of a pulsed self-magnetically B insulated ion diode. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research 228, 161168.
Zieher, KW (1984 b) Necessary condition for current neutralization of an ion beam propagating into vacuum from a self-magnetically Bθ-insulated ion diode. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 228, 169173.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Laser and Particle Beams
  • ISSN: 0263-0346
  • EISSN: 1469-803X
  • URL: /core/journals/laser-and-particle-beams
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed