Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Teaching third languages: Findings, trends and challenges

  • Ulrike Jessner (a1)

Abstract

The last decade has witnessed a rapid increase in interest in multilingualism. Whereas a number of scholars in language acquisition research still base their work on the monolingual native speaker norm, others have developed more realistic viewpoints. This article provides an overview of international research on third language learning and teaching, including examples mainly from a European background. It describes sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic and educational aspects of multilingual teaching and emphasizes current research trends in this fairly young area of language teaching. The challenging ways which have been suggested to achieve multilingualism for all necessarily have to address learners, teachers, educators and policy makers. It will be argued that multilingual education can only be successful if language teaching in general is restructured and oriented towards multilingual norms.

Copyright

References

Hide All

Because of space limitations, titles are given in the original language(s) only. Readers interested in their English translations should contact the author at .

Ahukanna, J., Lund, N. & Gentile, R. 1981. Inter- and intra-lingual interference effects in learning a third language. Modern Language Journal 65, 281287.
Aronin, L. & Ó Laoire, M. 2003. Multilingual students' awareness of their language teacher's other languages.Language Awareness 12.3/4, 204219.
Aronin, L. & Laoire, M. Ó 2004. Exploring multilingualism in cultural contexts: Towards a notion of multilinguality. In Hoffmann, C. & Ytsma, J. (eds.), Trilingualism in family, school and community. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1129.
Baetens-Beardsmore, H. 1995. The European school experience in multilingual education. In Skuttnab-Kangas, T. (ed.), Multilingualism for all. Lisse: Svets & Zeitlinger, 2168.
Baker, C. 2006. Foundations of bilingualism and bilingual education (4th edn.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Barnes, J. 2006. Early trilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bartelt, G. 1989. The interaction of multilingual constraints. In Dechert, H. W. & Raupach, M. (eds.), Interlingual processes. Tübingen: Narr, 151177.
Behr, U. (ed.) 2005. Sprachen entdecken – Sprachen vergleichen. Kopiervorlagen zum sprachenübergreifenden Lernen. Deutsch, Englisch, Französisch, Russisch, Latein. Berlin: Cornelsen.
Bialystok, E. 2001. Metalinguistic aspects of bilingual processing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21, 169181.
Bialystok, E., Craik, F., Klein, R. & Viswanathan, M. 2004. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and Aging 19, 290303.
Braun, M. 1937. Beobachtungen zur Frage der Mehrsprachigkeit. Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen 4, 115130
Brizic, K. 2006. The secret life of languages: Origin-specific differences in L1/L2 acquisition by immigrant children. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 16.3, 339362.
Brohy, C. 2001. Generic and/or specific advantages of bilingualism in a dynamic purilingual situation: The case of French as official L3 in the school of Samedan (Switzerland). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4.1, 3849.
Candelier, M. (ed.) 2003. Evlang – l'éveil aux langues à l'école primaire. Bruxelles: De Boeck–Duculot Carrasco.
Carrasco Perea, E. 2002. L'intercomprehension dans le domain roman: la portée opératoire de la langue intermédiaire parente. In Müller-Lancé, & Riehl, (eds.), 79–86.
Caruana, S. 2006. Trilingualism in Malta: Maltese, English and ‘Italiano Televisio’. International Journal of Multilingualism 3.3, 159172.
Cenoz, J. 1991. Enseñanza-aprendizaje de inglés como L2 o L3. Donostia: Universidad del Pais Vasco.
Cenoz, J. 2000. Research on multilingual acquisition. In Cenoz, & Jessner, (eds.), 39–53.
Cenoz, J. 2001. The effect of linguistic distance, L2 status and age on crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition. In Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. (eds.), Crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 820.
Cenoz, J. 2003a. The additive effect of bilingualism on third language acquisition: A review. The International Journal of Bilingualism 7.1, 7188.
Cenoz, J. 2003b. Crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition: Implications for the organization of the multilingual mental lexicon. Bulletin VALS-ASLA 78, 111.
Cenoz, J. 2005 English in bilingual programs in the Basque Country. The International Journal of the Sociology of Language 171, 4150.
Cenoz, J. in press. Towards multilingual education: Basque educational research in international perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cenoz, J. & Genesee, F. (eds.) 1998. Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. (eds.) 2000. Trilingualism – Tertiary languages – German in a multilingual world. Special Issue of Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht 5.1. <http://www.ualberta.ca/~german/ejournal/ejournal.htm> accessed 15/08/2007.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. (eds.) 2001a. Third language acquisition in the school context. Special Issue of International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education 4.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. (eds.) 2001b. Looking beyond second language acquisition: Studies in tri- and multilingualism. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. (eds.) 2001c. Crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition: Psycholinguistic perspectives. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. 2003a. Why investigate the multilingual lexicon? In Cenoz et al. (eds.) (2003b), 1–9.
Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. & Jessner, U. (eds.) 2003b. The multilingual lexicon. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Cenoz, J. & Jessner, U. (eds.) 2000. English in Europe: The acquisition of a third language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cenoz, J. & Valencia, J. 1994. Additive trilingualism: Evidence from the Basque Country. Applied Psycholinguistics 15, 197209.
Chamot, A. & J. O'Malley 1994. Language learner and learning strategies. In Ellis, N. (ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages. London: Academic Press, 371392.
Chandrasekhar, A. 1978. Base language. IRAL 16.1, 6265.
Clyne, M. 1997. Some of the things trilinguals do. International Journal of Bilingualism 1.2, 95116.
Clyne, M. 2003a. Dynamics of language contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clyne, M. 2003b. Towards a more language-centred approach to plurilingualism. In Dewaele, J-M., Housen, A. & Wei, L. (eds.), Bilingualism: Beyond principles. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 4355.
Clyne, M., Rossi, C. Hunt & Isaakidis, T. 2004. Learning a community language as a third language. International Journal of Multilingualism 1.1, 3352.
Cohen, A. 1998. Strategies in learning and using a second language. London: Longman.
Cook, V. J. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 33.2, 185209.
Cook, V. J. (2003). The changing L1 in the L2 user's mind. In Cook, V. J. (ed.), Effects of the second language on the first. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 118.
Cook, V. J. (2006). The nature of the L2 user. Presented at the EUROSLA conference, Ankara. <http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/Writings/Papers/EURO2006.htm> accessed 15/7/2007.
Corson, D. 1995. Using English words. New York: Kluwer.
Coste, D. 1997. Multilingual and multicultural competence and the role of school. Language Teaching 30, 9093.
Cummins, J. 1991. Language learning and bilingualism. Sophia Linguistica 29, 1194.
Cummins, J. 2001. Instructional conditions for trilingual development. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 6175.
Cummins, J. 2006. Identity texts: The imaginative construction of self through multiliteracy pedagogy. In Garcia et al. (eds.), 51–68.
De Angelis, G. 2005a. Multilingualism and non-native lexical transfer: an identification problem. International Journal of Multilingualism 2.1, 125.
De Angelis, G. 2005b. Interlanguage influence of function words. Language Learning 55.3, 379414.
De Angelis, G. & Selinker, L. 2001. Interlanguage transfer and competing linguistic systems. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2001c), 42–58.
De Bot, K. 1992. A bilingual production model: Levelt's Speaking Model adapted. Applied Linguistics 13, 124.
De Bot, K. 2004. The multilingual lexicon: Modelling selection and control. International Journal of Multilingualism 1.1, 1732.
De Bot, K., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M. 2007. A dynamic systems theory to L2 acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 10.1, 721.
Dentler, S. 1998. Zur Systematizität und Porgnostizierbarkeit lexikalischer Interferenzen. In Hufeisen, & Lindemann, (eds.), 31–46.
Dentler, S., Hufeisen, B. & Lindemann, B. (eds.) 2000. Tertiär- und Drittsprachen: Projekte und empirische Untersuchungen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Dewaele, J-M. 1998. Lexical inventions: French interlanguage as L2 versus L3. Applied Linguistics 19, 471–90.
Dewaele, J-M. & Edwards, M. 2001. Conversations trilingues (arabe, français, anglais) entre mère et fille: un saute–mouton referentiel? In Charnet, C. (ed.), Communications référentielles et processus référentiels. Montpellier: Publications de Praxiling: Université Paul-Valéry, 193214.
Dijkstra, T. & van Hell, J. 2003. Testing the language mode hypothesis using trilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education 6.1, 216.
Dikova, V., Mavrodieva, L. & Stankulova, K. 2001. Curriculum für Deutsch als zweite Fremdsprache in der bulgarischen allgemeinbildenden Oberschule. Zeitschrift für interkutlturellen Fremdpsrachenunterricht 5.3, 24. <http://zif.spz.tu-darmstadt.de/jg-05-3/beitrag/dikova.htm accessed 15/5/2007.
Dörnyei, Z. 2005. The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in L2 acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Duke, J., Hufeisen, B. & Lutjeharms, M. 2004. Die sieben Siebe des EuroCom für den multilingualen Einstieg in die Welt der germanischen Sprachen. In Klein, & Rutke, (eds.), 109–134.
Ecke, P. 2001. Lexical retrieval in a third language: Evidence from errors and tip-of-the-tongue states. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2001c), 90–114.
Edwards, J. 1994. Multilingualism. London: Routledge.
Ellis, E. M. 2005. The invisible multilingual teacher: The contribution of language background to Australian ESL teachers' professional knowledge and beliefs. International Journal of Multilingualism 1.2, 90108.
Ellis, N. C. 1998. Emergentism, connectionism and language learning. Language Learning 48, 631664.
Ellis, N. C. 2005. At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24.2, 143188.
Ellis, N. C. & Larsen-Freeman, D. 2006. Language emergence: Implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics 27.4, whole issue.
Ellis, R. 1985. Understanding L2 acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ender, A. 2007. Wortschatzerwerb und Strategieneinsatz bei mehrsprachigen Lernenden. Aktivierung von Wissen und erfolgreiche Verknüpfung beim Lesen auf Verständnis einer Fremdsprache. Hohengehren: Schneider.
Escamilla, A., Chavez, L. & Vigil, P. 2005. Rethinking the ‘Gap’: High stakes testing and Spanish-speaking students in Colorado. Journal of Teacher Education 56.2, 132144.
Eurobarometer Report 54. <http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb54/eb54_de.pdf> accessed 17/5/2007.
EuroCom. <http://eurocom-frankfurt.de> accessed 10/5/2007.
European Schools. <http.//eursc.eu> accessed 17/5/2007.
Feichtinger, A., Lanzmaier-Ugri, K., Farnault, B. & Pornon, J. 2000. Bilder von der Welt in verschiedenen Sprachen. In Matzer, E. (ed.), Sprach- und Kulturerziehung in Theorie und Praxis. Graz: Zentrum für Schulentwicklung, 5770.
Feigs, W. 1998. Verbalkongruenzfehler im Fremdsprachenerwerb. In Hufeisen, & Lindemann, (eds.), 7–20.
Flynn, S., Foley, C. & Vinnitskaya, I. 2004. The cumulative–enhancement model for language acquisition: Comparing adults' and children's patterns of development in first, second and third language acquisition of relative clauses. International Journal of Multilingualism 1.1, 316.
Gabrys-Baker, D. 2001. A cross-cultural aspect of the interaction of languages in the mental lexicon of multiligual learners. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2001b), 75–96.
Galanet <http://www.galanet.eu> accessed 30/6/2007.
García, O., Skuttnab-Kangas, T. & Torres-Guzmán, M. 2006a. Weaving spaces and (de)constructing ways for multilingual schools: The actual and the imagined. In García, et al. (eds.), 3–47.
García, O., Skuttnab-Kangas, T. & Torres-Guzmán, M. (eds.) 2006b. Imagining multilingual schools: Languages in education and globalization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
García Mayo, M. 2006. Synthetic compounding in the English interlanguage of Basque-Spanish bilinguals. International Journal of Multilingualism 3.4, 231257.
Gardner, R., Tremblay, P. & Masgoret, A-M. 1997. Towards a full model of L2 learning: an empirical investigation. Modern Language Journal 81, 344362.
Gass, S. 1996. L2 acquisition and linguistic theory: the role of language transfer. In Ritchie, W. & Bhatia, T. (eds.), Handbook of L2 acquisition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 317345.
Gatto, D. 2000. Language proficiency and narrative proficiency of a trilingual child. In Dentler, et al. (eds.), 117–142.
Genesee, F. 1998. A case study of multilingual education in Canada. In Cenoz, & Genesee, (eds.), 243–258.
Genesee, F., Tucker, R. & Lambert, W. 1975. Communication skills in bilingual children. Child Development 54, 105114.
Glinz, H. 1994. Grammatiken im Vergleich. Deutsch-Französich-Englisch-Latein. Formen-Bedeutungen-Verstehen. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
González, P. 1998. Learning a L2 in a third language environment. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen 59, 3139.
Graddol, D. 2004. The future of language. Science Magazine 303, 13291331.
Green, D. 1986. Control, activation and resource: A framework and a model for the control of speech in bilinguals. Brain and Language 27, 210223.
Green, D. 1998. Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 6781.
Grießler, M. 2001. The effects of third language learning on L2 proficiency: An Austrian example. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4.1, 5060.
Groseva, M. 1998. Dient das L2-System als ein Fremdsprachenmodell? In Hufeisen, & Lindemann, (eds.), 21–30.
Grosjean, F. 1985. The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 6, 467–77.
Grosjean, F. 1998. Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 131149.
Grosjean, F. 2001. The bilingual's language modes. In Nicol, J. (ed.), One mind, two languages: Bilingual language processing. Oxford: Blackwell, 125.
Gulutsan, M. 1976. Third language learning. Canadian Modern Language Review 32.3, 309315.
Haarmann, H. 1980. Multilingualismus (1). Probleme der Systematik und Typologie. Tübingen: Narr.
Hall, C. & Ecke, P. 2003. Parasitism as a default mechanism in L3 vocabulary acquisition. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2003b), 71–86.
Hamers, J. & Blanc, M. 1989. Bilinguality and bilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hammarberg, W. 2001. Roles of L1 and L2 in L3 production and acquisition. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2001c), 21–41.
Hammarberg, W. & Williams, S. 1993. A study of third language acquisition. In Hammarberg, B. (ed.), Problem, process, product in language learning. Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics, 6069.
Haugen, E. 1956. Bilingualism in the Americas. Alabama: American Dialect Society.
Hawkins, E. 1999. Foreign language study and language awareness. Language Awareness 8.3&4, 124142.
Hélot, C. 2006. Bridging the gap between prestigious bilingualism and the bilingualism of minorities: Towards an integrated perspective of multilingualism in the French education context. In Laoire, Ó (ed.), 49–72.
Hélot, C. & Young, A. 2006. Imagining multilingual education in France: A language and cultural awareness project at primary level. In García, et al. (eds.), 69–90.
Herdina, P. & Jessner, U. 2002. A dynamic model of multilingualism: Perspectives of change in psycholinguistics. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Herwig, A. 2001. Plurilingual lexical organisation: Evidence from lexical processing in L1-L2-L3-L4 translation. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2001c), 115–37.
Hinger, B., Kofler, W., Skinner, A. & Stadler, W. 2005. The Innsbruck model of Fremdsprachendidaktik: Towards an integrated multilingual approach in pre-service teacher education. The Teacher Trainer 19, 1720.
Hoffmann, C. 1985. Language acquisition in two trilingual children. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 6, 281287.
Hoffmann, C. 1998. Luxemburg and the European Schools. In Cenoz, & Genesee, (eds.), 143–174.
Hoffmann, C. 2000. The spread of English and the growth of multilingualism with English in Europe. In Cenoz, & Jessner, (eds.), 1–21.
Hufeisen, B. 1991. Englisch als erste und Deutsch als zweite Fremdsprache. Empirische Untersuchung zur fremdsprachlichen Interaktion. Frankfurt: Lang.
Hufeisen, B. 1994. Englisch im Unterricht Deutsch als Fremdsprache. München: Klett.
Hufeisen, B. 1998. L3 – Stand der Forschung – Was bleibt zu tun? In Hufeisen, & Lindemann, (eds.), 169–183.
Hufeisen, B. 2005. Gesamtsprachencurriculum: Einflussfaktoren and Bedingungsgefüge. In Hufeisen, & Lutjeharms, (eds.), 9–18.
Hufeisen, B. & Gibson, M. 2003. Zur Interdependenz emotionaler und kognitiver Faktoren im Rahmen eines Modells zur Beschreibung sukzessiven multiplen Sprachenlernens. Bulletin VALS-ASLA 78, 1333.
Hufeisen, B. & Lindemann, B. (eds.) 1998. Tertiärsprachen. Theorien, Modelle, Methoden. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Hufeisen, B. & Lindemann, B. (eds.) 2000. L2–L3 und ihre zwischensprachliche Interaktion: Zu individueller Mehrsprachigkeit und gesteuertem Lernen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Hufeisen, B. & Lindemann, B. (eds.) 2005. Gesamtsprachencurriculum – Integrierte Sprachendidaktik – Common Curriculum: Theoretische Überlegungen und Beispiele der Umsetzung (Giessener Beiträge zur Fremdsprachenforschung). Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
Hufeisen, B. & Marx, N. (eds.) 2004. Beim Schwedischlernen sind Englisch und Deutsch ganz hilfsvoll: Untersuchungen zum multiplen Sprachenlernen. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.
Hufeisen, B. & Marx, N. (eds.) 2007a. EuroComGerm – Die sieben Siebe: Germanische Sprachen lesen lernen. Aachen: Shaker Verlag.
Hufeisen, B. & Marx, N. 2007b. How can DaFnE and EuroComGerm contribute to the concept of receptive multilingualism? Theoretical and practical considerations. In Thije, J. & Zeevaert, L. (eds.), Receptive, multilingualism: Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 307321.
Hufeisen, B. & Neuner, G. (eds.) 2003. Mehrsprachigkeitskonzept – Tertiärsprachen – Deutsch nach Englisch. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
International School of Vienna <http:vis.ac.at> accessed 15/7/2007.
James, A. 2000. English as a European Lingua Franca: Current realities and existing dichotomies. In Cenoz, & Jessner, (eds.), 248–260.
Janovsky, U. 2000. Französisch im DaF-Unterricht. In Dentler et al. (eds.), 169–190.
Jespersen, O. 1922. Language. London: Allen and Unwin.
Jessner, U. 1999. Metalinguistic awareness in multilinguals: Cognitive aspects of third language learning. Language Awareness 8.3&4, 201209.
Jessner, U. 2003. On the nature of crosslinguistic interaction in multilinguals. In Cenoz et al. (eds.) (2003b), 45–55.
Jessner, U. 2006. Linguistic awareness in multilinguals: English as a third language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Jessner, U. 2008. A DST-model of multilingualism and the role of metalinguistic awareness. Second language development as a dynamic process. Special Issue of Modern Language Journal 92.2.
Jessner, U. in press a. Language awareness in multilinguals. In Cenoz, J. (ed.), Knowledge about language. New York: Springer. [Vol. 5 of Handbook of language and education, edited by Hornberger, N..]
Jessner, U. in press b. Multicompetence approaches to the development of language proficiency in multilingual education. In Cummins, J. (ed.), Bilingual education. New York: Springer. [Vol. 6 of Handbook of language and education, edited by Hornberger, N..]
Jessner, U. & Cenoz, J. 2007. Teaching English as a third language. In Cummins, J. & Davies, C. (eds.), The handbook of English language teaching. Dordrecht: Springer, 155168.
Karpf, A. 1990. Selbstorganisationsprozesse in der sprachlichen Ontogenese: Erst- und Fremdsprache(n). Tübingen: Narr.
Kaspers, A. (2007). Ladin – The Ladin language in education in Italy. <http://www1.fa.knaw.nl/mercator/regionale_dossiers/regional_dossier_ladin_in_italy.htm>; accessed 15/5/2007.
Kellerman, E. 1979. Transfer and non-transfer: Where are we now? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 2, 3757.
Kellerman, E. 1995. Crosslinguistic influence: Transfer to nowhere? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 15, 125150.
Kemp, C. 2001. Metalinguistic awareness in multilinguals: Implicit and explicit grammatical awareness and its relationship with language experience and language attainment. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
Kemp, C. 2006. Implicit and explicit knowledge of grammatical form and function in learners using three or more languages. Presented at the conference of the Association for Language Awareness, Le Mans, France.
Kemp, C. in press. Strategic processing in grammar learning: Do multilinguals use more strategies. International Journal of Multilingualism.
Kjär, U. 2000. Deutsch als L3: Zur Interimsprache schwedischer Deutschlerner (unter Berücksichtigung des Englischen als L2). In Dentler et al. (eds.), 41–56.
Klein, E. 1995. Second vs. third language acquisition: Is there a difference? Language Learning 45.3, 419465.
Klein, H. G. & Rutke, D. (eds.) 2004. Neuere Forschungen zur Europäischen Intercomprehension. Aachen: Shaker.
Klein, H.G. & Stegmann, T. D. 2000. EuroComRom – Die sieben Siebe: Romanische Sprachen sofort lesen können. Aachen: Shaker.
Köberle, B. 1998. Positive Interaktion zwischen L2, L3, L4 und ihre Applikationen im Fremdsprachenunterricht. In Hufeisen, & Lindemann, (eds.), 89–110.
König, W., Cedden, G. & Onaran, S. 2006. Language production in Turkish–German–English trilinguals. International Journal of Multilingualism 2.2, 135148.
Kovács, A. 2007. Beyond language: Childhood bilingualism. In Kecskes, I. & Albertazzi, L. (eds.), Cognitive aspects of bilingualism. New York: Springer, 301324.
Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and practices in L2 acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Krumm, H-J. 2005. Von der additiven zur curricularen Mehrsprachigkeit: Über die Notwendigkeit der Einbeziehung von Minderheiten-, Migranten- und Nachbarsprachen. In Hufeisen, & Lutjeharms, (eds.), 27–36.
Lambert, W. 1977. The effects of bilingualism on the individual: Cognitive and sociocultural consequences. In Hornby, P. (ed.), Bilingualism: Psychological, social and educational implications. New York: Academic Press, 1528.
Larsen-Freeman, D. 1997. Chaos/complexity science and L2 acquisition. Applied Linguistics 18, 141165.
Lasagabaster, D. 1998. The threshold hypothesis applied to three languages in contact at school. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4.5, 310328.
Lasagabaster, D. & Huguet, A. (eds.) 2007. Multilingualism in European countries. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Laurie, S. 1890. Lectures on language and linguistic method in school. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leung, I. 2007. Second language (L2) English and third language (L3) French article acquisition by native speakers of Cantonese. International Journal of Multilingualism 4.2, 117149.
Levelt, W. 1989. Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, M. 1997. Implementing the lexical approach: Putting theory into practice. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.
Lindemann, B. 2000. ‘Da fällt mir immer zuerst ein englisches Wort ein’: Zum Einfluss der ersten Fremdsprache beim Übersetzen ins Deutsche. In Dentler, et al. (eds.), 57–66.
Lindqvist, C. 2006. L'influence translinguistique dans l'interlangue française: Étude de la production orale d'apprenants plurilingues. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stockholm.
Wei, Li 2000. Dimensions of bilingualism. In Wei, Li (ed.), The bilingualism reader. London: Routledge, 325.
Llurda, E. 2005. Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession. New York: Sprinter.
MacWhinney, B. (ed.) 1999. The emergence of language. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mägiste, E. 1984. Learning a third language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 5, 415421.
Malakoff, M. & Hakuta, K. 1991. Translation skill and metalinguistic awareness in bilinguals. In Bialystok, E. (ed.), Language processing in bilingual children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 141166.
Mansour, G. 1993. Multilingualism and nation building. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Marx, N. 2005. Hörverstehensleistungen im Deutschen als Tertiärsprache: Zum Nutzen eines Sensibilisierungsunterrichts in ‘DaFnE’. Hohengehren: Schneider.
Masperi, M. 2002. Intercompréhension en langues romanes: Deux temps forts d'une recherche didactique. In Müller-Lancé, & Riehl, (eds.), 87–98.
McCarthy, J. 1994. The case for language awareness in the Irish primary school curriculum. Language Awareness 3, 19.
McLaughlin, B. 1990. The relationship between first and second languages: Language proficiency and language aptitude. In Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J. & Swain, M. (eds.), The development of L2 proficiency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 158174.
McLaughlin, B. & Nayak, N. 1989. Processing a new language: Does knowing other languages make a difference? In Dechert, H. & Raupach, M. (eds.), Interlingual processes. Tübingen: Narr, 514.
Meara, P. 1999. Self-organization in bilingual lexicons. In Broeder, P. & Muure, J. (eds.), Language and thought in development. Tübingen: Narr, 127144.
Meisel, J. M. 1983. Transfer as an L2 strategy. Language and Communication 3, 1146.
Meißner, F-J. 2004. Transfer und Transferieren: Anleitungen zum Interkomprehensionsunterricht. In Klein, & Rutke, (eds.), 39–66.
Merkelbach, C. 2006. The pedagogical impact of L2 acquisition (English) on tertiary language acquisition (German) in Taiwan. In Laoire, Ó (ed.), 20–35.
Met, M. 1998. Curriculum decision-making in content-based language teaching. In Cenoz, & Genesee, (eds.), 35–63.
Michiels, B. 1997. Die Rolle der Niederländischkenntnisse bei französisichsprachigen Lernern von Deutsch als L3: Eine empirische Untersuchung. Ph.D. thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Mißler, B. 1999. Fremdsprachenlernerfahrungen und Lernstrategien. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Mißler, B. 2000. Previous experience of foreign language learning and its contribution to the development of learning strategies. In Dentler, et al. (eds.), 7–22.
Modirkhamene, S. 2006. The reading achievement of third language versus second language learners of English in relation to the interdependence hypothesis. International Journal of Multilingualism 3.4, 280295.
Mohanty, A. 1994. Bilingualism in a multilingual society: Psychosocial and pedagogical implications. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Möhle, D. 1989. Multilingual interaction in foreign language production. In Dechert, H. & Raupach, M. (eds.), Interlingual processes. Tübingen: Narr, 179194.
Moore, D. 2006a. Plurilingualism and strategic competence in context. International Journal of Multilingualism 3.2, 125138.
Moore, D. 2006b. Plurilinguismes et École. Paris: Didier.
Müller, A. 1999. Vergleichsweise einfach. PRAXIS 46, 273281.
Müller-Lancé, J. 2002. Tertiärsprachen aus Sicht der Kognitiven Linguistik: Überlegungen zu Fremdsprachenunterricht und Fremdsprachenfolge. In Müller-Lancé, & Riehl, (eds.), 133–150.
Müller-Lancé, J. 2003. Der Wortschatz romanischer Sprachen im Tertiärspracherwerb. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Müller-Lancé, J. 2004. Latein als Zielsprache im Rahmen mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktischer Konzepte. In Klein, & Rutke, (eds.), 83–94.
Müller-Lancé, J. & Riehl, C. (eds.) 2002. Ein Kopf – viele Sprachen: Koexistenz, Interaktion und Vermittlung. Une tête – plusières langues: coexistence, interaction et enseignement. Aachen: Shaker.
Muñoz, C. 2000. Bilingualism and trilingualism in school students in Catalonia. In Cenoz, & Jessner, (eds.), 157–178.
Munske, H. H. & Kirkness, A. (eds.) 1996. Eurolatein. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Myers-Scotton, C. 2006. Multiple voices: An introduction to bilingualism. London: Blackwell.
Näf, A. & Pfänder, D. 2001. <Springing of> a <bruck> with an elastic <sail> – Deutsches im Englisch von französischsprachigen Schülern. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Linguistik 35, 537.
Naiman, N., Fröhlich, M., Stern, H. & Todesco, A. 1996[1978]. The good language learner. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Nation, R. & McLaughlin, B. 1986. Experts and novices: An information-processing approach to the ‘good language learner’ problem. Applied Psycholinguistics 7, 5156.
Navés, T., Miralpeix, I. & Celaya, M. 2006. Who transfers more . . . and what? Crosslinguistic influence in relation to school grade and language dominance in EFL. International Journal of Multilingualism 2.2, 113134.
Nayak, N., Hansen, N., Krueger, N. & McLaughlin, B. 1990. Language-learning strategies in monolingual and multilingual adults. Language Learning 40.2, 221244.
Odlin, T. & Jarvis, S. 2004. Same source, different outcomes: A study of Swedish influence on the acquisition of English in Finland. International Journal of Multilingualism 1.2, 123140.
Oksaar, E. 1977. On becoming trilingual. In Molony, C., Zobl, H. & Stölting, W. (eds.), Deutsch im Kontakt mit anderen Sprachen. Kronberg: Scriptor, 296307.
Ó Laoire, M. 2005. L1, L2 and L3 teaching in Ireland – towards a common curriculum. In Hufeisen, & Lutjeharms, (eds.), 45–50.
Ó Laoire, M. (ed.) 2006. Multilingualism in educational settings. Hohengrehen: Schneider.
Olshtain, E. & Nissim-Amitai, F. 2004. Curriculum decision-making in a multilingual context. International Journal of Multilingualism 1.1, 5364.
Oomen-Welke, I. 2006. Sprachunterricht sprachübergreifend – (wie) geht das praktisch, und hat es Effekte? In Timm, J-P. (ed.), Fremdsprachenlernen: Kompetenzen, Standards, Aufgaben, Evaluation. Tübingen: Narr, 303320.
Oxford, R. 1990. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.
Pavlenko, A. 2006. Emotions and multilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peal, E. & Lambert, W. 1962. The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs 76, 123.
Phillips, D. 1992. The social scientist's bestiary: A guide to fabled threats to, and defences of, naturalistic social science. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Ringbom, H. 1987. The role of L1 in foreign language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Ringbom, H. 2007. Crosslinguistic similarity in foreign language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. 2006. Age and third language production: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Multilingualism 2.2, 105112.
Saer, D. 1923. The effects of bilingualism on intelligence. British Journal of Psychology 14, 2538.
Safont, M. 2003. Metapragmatic awareness and pragmatic production of third language learners of English: A focus on request acts realisations. The International Journal of Bilingualism 7.1, 4369.
Safont Jordá, M. 2006. Pragmatic production of third language learners of English: A focus on request acts modifiers. International Journal of Multilingualism 2.2, 84104.
Sagasta, M. 2003. Acquiring writing skills in a third language: The positive effects of bilingualism. The International Journal of Bilingualism 7.1, 2742.
Sanz, C. 1997. L3 acquisition and the cognitive advantages of bilingualism: Catalans learning English. In Díaz, L. & Pérez, C. (eds.), Views on the acquisition and use of a L2. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 449456.
Schmid, S. 1993. Learning strategies for closely related languages: On the Italian spoken by Spanish immigrants in Switzerland. In Kettemann, B. & Wieden, W. (eds.), Current issues in European second language acquisition research, 405–419.
Schmid, S. 1995. Multilingualer Fremdsprachenunterricht: Ein didaktischer Versuch mit Lernstrategien. Multilingua 15, 5590.
Schönpflug, U. 2003. The transfer-appropriate-processing approach and the trilingual's organisation of the lexicon. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2003b), 27–44.
Schuchardt, H. 1884. Slavo-deutsches und Slavo-italienisches. Graz: Leuschner & Lubensky.
Schweers, W. 1996. Metalinguistic awareness and language transfer: One thing leads to another. Presented at the Conference of the Association for Language Awareness, Dublin, July.
Seidlhofer, B. 2000. Mind the gap: English as a mother tongue vs. English as a lingua franca. Vienna English Working Papers 9.1, 5168.
Seidlhofer, B. 2005. Standard future or half-baked quackery? Descriptive and pedagogic bearings on the globalisation of English. In Gnutzmann, C. & Intemann, F. (eds.), The globalisation of English and the English language classroom. Tübingen: Narr, 159173.
Sharwood Smith, M. 1994. L2 learning. London: Longman.
Sharwood Smith, M. & Kellerman, E. 1986. Crosslinguistic influence in L2 acquisition: An introduction. In Kellerman, E. & Sharwooddr Smith, M. (eds.), Crosslinguistic influence in L2 acquisition. New York: Pergamon Press, 19.
Singh, R. & Carroll, S. 1979. L1, L2 and L3. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 5.1, 5163.
Singleton, D. 1987. Mother and other tongue influence on learner French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 9, 327346.
Singleton, D. & Little, D. 1991. The second language learner: Some evidence from university level-learners of French and German. Second Language Research 7.1, 6182.
Skuttnab-Kangas, T. 1984. Bilingualism or not. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Skuttnab-Kangas, T. 2000. Linguistic human rights and teachers of English. In Hall, J. & Eggington, W. (eds.), The sociopolitics of English language teaching. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2244.
Spöttl, C. 2001. Expanding students' mental lexicons: A multilingual student perspective. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2001b), 161–175.
Spöttl, C. & Hinger, B. 2002. A multilingual approach to vocabulary acquisition. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Third Language Acquisition and Trilingualism in Leeuwarden (CD-Rom). Leeuwaarden: Fryske Akademy.
Spöttl, C. & McCarthy, M. 2003. Formulaic utterances in the multilingual context. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2003b), 133–152.
Stedje, A. 1976. Interferenz von Muttersprache und Zweitsprache auf eine dritte Sprache beim freien Sprechen – ein Vergleich. Zielsprache Deutsch 1, 1521.
Stoye, S. 2000. Eurocomprehension: Der romanistische Beitrag für eine europäische Mehrsprachigkeit. Aachen: Shaker.
Terrasi, E. 2000. Die Anwendung funktional–pragmatischer Kategorien auf die Vermittlung von DaF unter Berücksichtigung von Erst- und Zweitsprachenkenntnissen exemplifiziert an der Tessiner Unterrichtssituation: Die schulische Auseinandersetzung mit Sprache. In Dentler, et al. (eds.), 99–116.
Thomas, J. 1988. The role played by metalinguistic awareness in second and third language learning. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 9, 235246.
Thomas, J. 1992. Metalinguistic awareness in second- and third-language learning. In Harris, R. (ed.), Cognitive processing in bilinguals. Amsterdam: North Holland, 531545.
Tremblay, M.-C. 2006. Crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition: The role of L2 proficiency and L2 exposure. CLO/OPL Ottawa 34, 109119.
Valdés, G. 2003. Expanding definitions of giftedness: The case of young interpreters from immigrant communities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Valdés, G. & Figueroa, R. 1994. Bilingualism and testing: A special case of bias. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Viereck, W. 1996. English in Europe: Its nativisation and use as a lingua franca, with special reference to German-speaking countries. In Hartmann, R. (ed.), English in Europe. Oxford: Intellect, 1623.
Vildomec, V. 1963. Multilingualism. Leyden: A.W. Sythoff.
Vogel, T. 1992. ‘English und Deutsch gibt es immer Krieg’.cd Sprachverarbeitungsprozesse beim Erwerb des Deutschen als Drittsprache. Zielsprache Deutsch 23.2, 9599.
Vollmer, H. 2001. Englisch und Mehrsprachigkeit: Die Rolle des Englischen für den Erwerb weiterer Fremdsprachen. In Aguado, K. & A. Hu (eds.), Mehrsprachigkeit und Mehrkulturalität. Berlin: Pädagogischer Zeitschriftenverlag, 75–88.
Wandruszka, M. 1986. Wege zur Mehrsprachigkeit in unseren Schulen. In Narr, B. & Wittje, H. (eds.), Spracherwerb und Mehrsprachigkeit: Language Acquisition and Multilingualism. Festschrift für Els Oksaar zum 60. Geburtstag. Tübingen: Narr, 223235.
Wandruszka, M. 1990. Die europäische Sprachengemeinschaft: Deutsch–Französisch–Englisch–Italienisch–Spanisch im Vergleich. Tübingen: Francke.
Wei, L. 2003. Activation of lemmas in the multilingual mental lexicon and transfer in third language acquisition. In Cenoz, et al. (eds.) (2003b), 57–70.
Wei, L. 2006. The multilingual mental lexicon and lemma transfer in third language learning. International Journal of Multilingualism 3.2, 88104.
Weisgerber, L. 1929. Muttersprache und Geistesbildung. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Rupprecht.
White Paper on Education and Training 2003. !http://ec.europa.eu/education/doc/official/keydoc/lb-en.pdf; accessed 3/6/2007.
Widdowson, H. 2003. Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ytsma, J. 2000. Trilingual primary education in Friesland. In Cenoz, & Jessner, (eds.), 222–235.
Zybatow, L. 2003. EuroComSlav: A road to Slavonic languages. Wiener Slawistischer Almanach 52, 281295.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Teaching third languages: Findings, trends and challenges

  • Ulrike Jessner (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.