Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2012


Nancy H. Hornberger
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6216, nancyh@gse.upenn.edu
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Indigenous languages are under siege, not only in the US but around the world – in danger of disappearing because they are not being transmitted to the next generation. Immigrants and their languages worldwide are similarly subjected to seemingly irresistible social, political, and economic pressures. This article discusses a number of such cases, including Shawandawa from the Brazilian Amazon, Quechua in the South American Andes, the East Indian communities of South Africa, Khmer in Philadelphia, Welsh, Maori, Turkish in the UK, and Native Californian languages. At a time when phrases like “endangered languages” and “linguicism” are invoked to describe the plight of the world's vanishing linguistic resources in their encounter with the phenomenal growth of world languages such as English, the cases reviewed here provide consistent and compelling evidence that language policy and language education serve as vehicles for promoting the vitality, versatility, and stability of these languages, and ultimately promote the rights of their speakers to participate in the global community on and IN their own terms. (Endangered languages, immigrant languages, indigenous languages, language revitalization, linguicism)


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Alfredsson, Gudmundur (1989). International discussion of the concerns of indigenous peoples. Current Anthropology 30: 255–59.Google Scholar
Brazil (1994a). Banco de dados do Programa Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Sāo Paulo, Brazil: CEDI/ Instituto Socioambiental, 11.Google Scholar
Brazil (1994b). Diretrizes para a política nacional de educação escolar indígena. (Cadernos educação básica, Série institucional, vol. 2.) Brasilia: Ministerio da Educação e do Desporto (MEC)/ SEF/DPEF.Google Scholar
Brazil (1996). Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil (CF/88). São Paulo: Editora Revista dos Tribunais.Google Scholar
Brenzinger, Matthias (1992), ed. Language death: Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Byram, Michael (1986). Schools in ethnolinguistic minorities. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 7:97106.Google Scholar
Cantoni, Gina (1996), ed. Stabilizing indigenous languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University Center for Excellence in Education.Google Scholar
Carrog, Ederi (1991). The unconquered language-a nation's will to live. Western Mail (UK), 25 07.Google Scholar
Cavalcanti, Marilda (1996). An indigenous teacher education course in Brazil: Cross-cultural interaction, voices and social representation. Paper presented at University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, Language in Education Division Colloquium, 11.Google Scholar
Chick, Keith (1996). Language policy in the Faculty of Humanities: Discussion Document. (Unpublished manuscript.) Durban, South Africa: University of Natal. 06.Google Scholar
Crawford, James (1994). Endangered Native American languages: What is to be done and why? Journal of Navajo Education 11:3.311.Google Scholar
Crawford, James (1996). Update on English-only legislation, IV, 9 03, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jwcrawford.Google Scholar
Crawford, James (1997). Update on English-only legislation, IX, 4 03.Google Scholar
Creese, Angela (1997). Partnership teaching in mainstream British secondary school classrooms: A language policy for bilingual students. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Fishman, Joshua A. (1991). Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Freeman, Rebecca D. (1993). Language planning and identity planning for social change: Gaining the ability and the right to participate. Dissertation, Georgetown University.Google Scholar
Freeman, Rebecca D. (1996). Dual-language planning at Oyster Bilingual School: “It's much more than language”. TESOL Quarterly 30:557–82.Google Scholar
Grenoble, Lenore A., & Whaley, Lindsay J. (1996). Endangered languages: Current issues and future prospects. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 118:209–23.Google Scholar
Hale, Ken et al. , (1992). Endangered languages. Language 68:142.Google Scholar
Hinton, Leanne (1994). Flutes of fire: Essays on California Indian languages. Berkeley: Heyday.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1988a). Bilingual education and language maintenance: A southern Peruvian Quechua case. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1988b). Language planning orientations and bilingual education in Peru. Language Problems and Language Planning 12:1429.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1989). Continua of biliteracy. Review of Educational Research 59:271–96.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1990). Creating successful contexts for bilingual literacy. Teachers College Record 92:212–29.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1991). Extending enrichment bilingual education: Revisiting typologies and redirecting policy. In García, Ofelia (ed.), Bilingual education: Focusschrifi in honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the occasion of his 65th birthday, 215–34. Philadelphia: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1992). Biliteracy contexts, continua, and contrasts: Policy and curriculum for Cambodian and Puerto Rican students in Philadelphia. Education and Urban Society 24:196211.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1994). Synthesis and discussion – vitality, versatility, stability: Conditions for collaborative change. Journal of American Indian Education 33:3.6063.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1996a), ed. Indigenous literacies in the Americas: Language planning from the bottom up. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1996b). Mother tongue literacy in the Cambodian community of Philadelphia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 119:6986.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H. (1997). Literacy, language maintenance, and linguistic human rights: Three telling cases. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127:87103.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H., & King, Kendall A. (1996). Language revitalisation in the Andes: Can the schools reverse language shift? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 17:427–41.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H., & López, Luis Enrique (1998). Policy, possibility, and paradox: Indigenous multilingualism and education in Peru and Bolivia. In Cenoz, Jasone & Genesee, Fred (eds.), Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education, to appear. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Hornberger, Nancy H., & Ricento, Thomas (1996), eds. Language planning and policy and the English language teaching profession. Special issue of the TESOL Quarterly 30:3.Google Scholar
Kelman, Herbert C. (1971). Language as an aid and barrier to involvement to the national system. In Rubin, Joan & Jernudd, Bjorn (eds.), Can language be planned? 2151. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
King, Kendall A. (1997). Language revitalization in the Andes: Quichua use, instruction, and identity in Saraguro, Ecuador. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Kloss, Heinz (1977). The American bilingual tradition. Rowley, MA: Newbury.Google Scholar
Krauss, Michael (1992). The world's languages in crisis. Language 68: 410.Google Scholar
Krauss, Michael (1996). Status of Native American language endangerment. In Cantoni, Gina (ed.), Stabilizing indigenous languages, 1621. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.Google Scholar
López, Luis Enrique (1995). La educación en áreas indígenas de América Latina: Apreciaciones comparativas desde la educación bilingüe intercultural. Guatemala: Centro de Estudios de la Cultura Maya.Google Scholar
López, Luis Enrique (1996a). Donde el zapato aprieta: Tendencias y desafíos de la educación bilingüe en el Perú. Revista Andina 14:295342.Google Scholar
López, Luis Enrique (1996b). To Guaranize: A verb actively conjugated by the Bolivian Guaranis. In Hornberger 1996a:321–53.Google Scholar
Mac Póilin, Aodán (1996). Aspects of the Irish language movement in Northern Ireland. Paper presented at the Canadian Association for Irish Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, 06.Google Scholar
Macías, Reynaldo (1979). Language choice and human rights in the United States. In Alatis, James (ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 86101. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Martin-Jones, Marilyn (1992). Minorities and sociolinguistics. In Bright, William (ed.), Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics 4:1518. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
May, Stephen (1996). Indigenous language rights and education. In Lynch, John et al. (eds.), Education and development: Tradition and innovation, 1:149–71. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
McCarty, Teresa L. (1996). Schooling, resistance, and American Indian languages. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, 11.Google Scholar
McCarty, Teresa L. et al. , (1994), eds. Local knowledge in indigenous schooling: Case studies in American Indian/Alaska Native education. Special issue of Journal of American Indian Education, 33:2.Google Scholar
Monte, Nietta Lindenberg (1996). Escolas da floresta: Entre o passado oral e o preserve letrado. Rio de Janeiro: Multiletra.Google Scholar
Nelde, Peter et al. , (1996). Euromosaic: The production and reproduction of the minority language groups in the European Union. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
Phillipson, Robert (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
PRAESA (1995). Project proposal for the establishment of a demonstration school to explore multilingual teaching strategies and for the training of multilingual teacher specialists under South African conditions. Capetown, South Africa: University of Capetown, Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa.Google Scholar
Ruiz, Richard (1984). Orientations in language planning. NABE Journal 8:1534.Google Scholar
Ruiz, Richard (1996). English officialization and transethnification in the USA. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, 11.Google Scholar
Shohamy, Elana (1994). Issues of language planning in Israel: Language and ideology. In Lambert, Richard D. (ed.), Language planning around the world: Contexts and systemic change, 131–42. Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center.Google Scholar
Skilton Sylvester, Ellen (1997). Inside, outside, and in-between: Identities, literacies and educational policies in the lives of Cambodian women and girls in Philadelphia. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove (1994). The politics of language standards. Paper presented at TESOL meeting, Baltimore.Google Scholar
South Africa (1993). South Africa's new language policy. Pretoria: Department of National Education.Google Scholar
South Africa (1996). State language services: Information on the Language Plan Task Group (Langtag). Cape Town: Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology.Google Scholar
Spolsky, Bernard (1995). Conditions for language revitalization: A comparison of the cases of Hebrew and Maori. Current Issues in Language and Society 2:177201.Google Scholar
Spolsky, Bernard & Shohamy, Elana (1998). Language in Israeli society and education. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, to appear.Google Scholar
Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo (1996). Unwelcome mats. Harvard Magazine, 0708, 3235.Google Scholar
Tollefson, James W. (1991). Planning language, planning inequality: Language policy in the community. London: Longman.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score


Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 1411 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 4th December 2020. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-b4dcdd7-qjxlp Total loading time: 0.41 Render date: 2020-12-04T12:33:41.885Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Fri Dec 04 2020 11:59:50 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": false, "languageSwitch": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *