Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A survey on fuzzy ontologies for the Semantic Web

  • Fu Zhang (a1), Jingwei Cheng (a1) and Zongmin Ma (a1)

Abstract

Ontology, as a standard (World Wide Web Consortium recommendation) for representing knowledge in the Semantic Web, has become a fundamental and critical component for developing applications in different real-world scenarios. However, it is widely pointed out that classical ontology model is not sufficient to deal with imprecise and vague knowledge strongly characterizing some real-world applications. Thus, a requirement of extending ontologies naturally arises in many practical applications of knowledge-based systems, in particular the Semantic Web. In order to provide the necessary means to handle such vague and imprecise information there are today many proposals for fuzzy extensions to ontologies, and until now the literature on fuzzy ontologies has been flourishing. To investigate fuzzy ontologies and more importantly serve as helping readers grasp the main ideas and results of fuzzy ontologies, and to highlight an ongoing research on fuzzy approaches for knowledge semantic representation based on ontologies, as well as their applications on various domains, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of fuzzy ontologies. In detail, we first introduce fuzzy ontologies from the most common aspects such as representation (including categories, formal definitions, representation languages, and tools of fuzzy ontologies), reasoning (including reasoning techniques and reasoners), and applications (the most relevant applications about fuzzy ontologies). Then, the other important issues on fuzzy ontologies, such as construction, mapping, integration, query, storage, evaluation, extension, and directions for future research, are also discussed in detail. Also, we make some comparisons and analyses in our whole review.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abulaish, M. & Dey, L. 2005. Knowledge enhancement through ontology-guided text mining. In Proceedings of the PReMI 2005, 601–604.
Abulaish, M. & Dey, L. 2006. Interoperability among distributed overlapping ontologies – a fuzzy ontology framework. In Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, 397–403.
Abulaish, M. & Dey, L. 2007. A fuzzy ontology generation framework for handling uncertainties and non-uniformity in domain knowledge description. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing: Theory and Applications, 287–293.
Alexopoulos, P., Wallace, M., Kafentzis, K. & Askounis, D. 2012. IKARUS-Onto: a methodology to develop fuzzy ontologies from crisp ones. Knowledge and Information Systems 32(3), 667695.
Ali, F., Kim, E. K. & Kim, Y. G. 2015. Type-2 fuzzy ontology-based semantic knowledge for collision avoidance of autonomous underwater vehicles. Information Sciences 295, 441464.
Angryk, R. A., Dolan, J. & Petry, F. E. 2006. Development of ontologies by the lowest common abstraction of terms using fuzzy hypernym chains. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing 204, 123148.
Asma, D. & Zizette, B. 2014. Fuzzy ontology evolution: classification of a new individual. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence 6(1), 914.
Atanassov, K. 1986. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 20, 8796.
Attia, Z. E., Gadallah, A. M. & Hefny, H. A. 2014. Semantic information retrieval model: fuzzy ontology approach. International Journal of Computer Applications 91(13), 914.
Baader, F., Calvanese, D., McGuinness, D., Nardi, D. & Patel-Schneider, P. F. 2003. The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation and Applications. Cambridge University Press.
Baader, F. & Hanschke, P. 1991. A scheme for integrating concrete domains into concept languages. In Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI’91), 452–457.
Bahri, A., Bejaoui, L. & Chakhar, S. 2005. On the similarity relation within fuzzy ontologies components. In The International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics.
Bahri, A., Bouaziz, R. & Gargouri, F. 2007. Dealing with similarity relations in fuzzy ontologies. In Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2007), 1836–1841.
Bahri, A., Bouaziz, R. & Gargouri, F. 2009. Fuzzy ontology implementation and query answering on databases. In Proceedings of the 28th North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Annual Conference (NAFIPS 2009).
Bakillah, M. & Mostafavi, M. A. 2011. A fuzzy logic semantic mapping approach for fuzzy geospatial ontologies. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Advances in Semantic Processing, 21–28.
Bandini, S., Calegari, S. & Radaelli, P. 2006. Towards fuzzy ontology handling vagueness of natural languages. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology (RSKT 2006), LNAI 4062, 693–700, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Barranco, C. D., Campana, J. R., Medina, J. M. & Pons, O. 2007. On storing ontologies including fuzzy datatypes in relational databases. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1–6.
Baziz, M., Boughanem, M., Prade, H. & Pasi., G. 2006. A fuzzy logic approach to information retrieval using an ontology-based representation of documents. In Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web, Sanchez, E. (ed.), Elsevier 1, 363–377.
Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. & Lassila, O. 2001. The semantic web. The Scientific American 284(5), 3443.
Blanco, I. J., Marín, N., Martínez-Cruz, C. & Vila, M. A. 2005. About the use of ontologies for fuzzy knowledge representation. In Joint EUSFLAT-LFA05, 100–105.
Blanco, I. J., Vila, M. A. & Martínez-Cruz, C. 2008. The use of ontologies for representing database schemas of fuzzy information. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 23(4), 419445.
Bobillo, F. 2008. Managing Vagueness in Ontologies. PhD thesis, University of Granada.
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M. & Gómez-Romero, J. 2006. A crisp representation for fuzzy SHOIN with fuzzy nominals and general concept inclusions. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web (URSW 06).
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M. & Gómez-Romero, J. 2007. Optimizing the crisp representation of the fuzzy description logic SROIQ. In Proceedings of the 3rd ISWC Workshop on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web.
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M. & Gómez-Romero, J. 2009a. Crisp representations and reasoning for fuzzy ontologies. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems 17(4), 501530.
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M. & Gómez-Romero, J. 2012. DeLorean: a reasoner for fuzzy OWL 2. Expert Systems with Applications 39(1), 258272.
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M., Gómez-Romero, J. & López, E. 2009b. A semantic fuzzy expert system for a fuzzy balanced scorecard. Expert Systems with Applications 36(1), 423433.
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M., Gómez-Romero, J. & Straccia, U. 2009c. Fuzzy description logics under Gödel semantics. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 50(3), 494514.
Bobillo, F., Delgado, M. & Sanchez-Sanchez, J. C. 2013. Parallel algorithms for fuzzy ontology reasoning. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems 21(4), 775781.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2008. fuzzyDL: an expressive fuzzy description logic reasoner. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 923–930.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2009a. An OWL ontology for fuzzy OWL 2. In ISMIS 2009, LNAI 5722, 151–160.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2009b. Fuzzy descriptions logics with fuzzy truth values. In Proceedings of the 13th World Congress of the International Fuzzy Systems Association and 6th Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology (IFSA-EUSFLAT 2009), 189–194.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2010. Representing fuzzy ontologies in OWL 2. In Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2010), 2695–2700.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2011a. Aggregations operators and fuzzy OWL 2. In Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2011), 1727–1734.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2011b. Fuzzy ontology representation using OWL 2. Journal of Approximate Reasoning 52, 10731094.
Bobillo, F. & Straccia, U. 2012. Generalized fuzzy rough description logics. Information Sciences 189(1), 4362.
Bosc, P., Kraft, D. H. & Petry, F. E. 2005. Fuzzy sets in database and information systems: status and opportunities. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 156(3), 418426.
Bragaglia, S., Chesani, F., Ciampolini, A., Mello, P., Montali, M. & Sottara, D. 2010. An hybrid architecture integrating forward rules with fuzzy ontological reasoning. In HAIS 2010, Part I, LNAI 6076, 438–445, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Buche, P., Dervin, C., Haemmerle, O. & Thomopoulos, R. 2005. Fuzzy querying of incomplete, imprecise, and heterogeneously structured data in the relational model using ontologies and rules. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems 13(3), 373383.
Buche, P., Dibie-Barthelemy, J. & Ibanescu, L. 2008. Ontology mapping using fuzzy conceptual graphs and rules. In ICCS Supplement, 17–24.
Bukhari, A. C. & Kim, Y. G. 2012. Integration of a secure type-2 fuzzy ontology with a multi-agent platform: a proposal to automate the personalized flight ticket booking domain. Information Sciences 198, 2447.
Bulskov, H., Knappe, R. & Andreasen, T. 2002. On measuring similarity for conceptual querying. In FQAS 2002, 100–111.
Cai, Y. & Leung, H. 2011. Formalizing object membership in fuzzy ontology with property importance and property priority. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1719–1726.
Calegari, S. & Ciucci, D. 2006. Integrating fuzzy logic in ontologies. In ICEIS, Manolopoulos, Y., Filipe, J., Constantopoulos, P. & Cordeiro, J. (eds). INSTICC Press, 6673.
Calegari, S. & Ciucci, D. 2007. Fuzzy ontology, fuzzy description logics and fuzzy-OWL. In Proceedings of WILF 2007, LNCS 4578, 118–126, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Calegari, S. & Loregian, M. 2006. Using dynamic fuzzy ontologies to understand creative environments. In FQAS 2006, 404–415.
Calegari, S. & Sanchez, E. 2008. Object-fuzzy concept network: an enrichment of ontologies in semantic information retrieval. JASIST 59(13), 21712185.
Calì, A., Lukasiewicz, T., Predoiu, L. & Stuckenschmidt, H. 2007. A framework for representing ontology mappings under probabilities and inconsistency. In URSW 2007.
Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M. & Rosati, R. 2007. Tractable reasoning and efficient query answering in description logics: the DL-Lite family. Journal of Automated Reasoning 39(3), 385429.
Cao, B., Li, T. F. & Zhang, C. Y. 2009. Measuring concept similarity between fuzzy ontologies. Fuzzy Information and Engineering 62(2), 163171.
Carlsson, C., Brunelli, M. & Mezei, J. 2012. Decision making with a fuzzy ontology. Soft Computing 16, 11431152.
Carlsson, C., Fullér, R. & Mezei, J. 2010. An approximate reasoning approach to rank the results of fuzzy queries. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Applied Operational Research-ICAOR’10, 382–387.
Carlsson, C., Mezei, J. & Brunelli, M. 2013. Fuzzy ontology used for knowledge mobilization. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 28(1), 5271.
Castano, S., Ferrara, A., Lorusso, D., Näth, T. H. & Moeller, R. 2008. Mapping validation by probabilistic reasoning. In Proceedings of the 5th European Semantic Web Conference, LNCS 5021, 170184. Springer Verlag.
Castillo, O., Melin, P., Tsvetkov, R. & Atanassov, K. 2014. Short remark on interval type-2 fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on IFSs, 1–5.
Ceravolo, P., Corallo, A., Damiani, E., Elia, G., Viviani, M. & Zilli, A. 2006. Bottom-up extraction and maintenance of ontology-based metadata. In Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web, Sanchez, E. (ed.). Elsevier, 265282.
Ceravolo, P., Damiani, E. & Leida, M. 2008. Which role for an ontology of uncertainty? In Proceedings of the 4th URSW 2008, 423.
Chandrasekaran, B., Josephson, J. & Benjamins, V. 1999. What are ontologies, and why do we need them? IEEE Intelligent Systems 14(1), 2026.
Chen, S., Nikolaidis, E., Cudney, H. H., Rosca, R. & Haftka, R. 1999. Comparison of probabilistic and fuzzy set methods for designing under uncertainty. In 40th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference and Exhibit, 2860–2874.
Chen, W., Yang, Q., Zhu, L. & Wen, B. 2009. Research on automatic fuzzy ontology generation from fuzzy context. In Proceedings of the 2009 Second International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, 764–767.
Cheng, J., Ma, Z. M., Yan, L. & Wang, H. 2008a. Querying over fuzzy description logic. Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences 13(4), 429434.
Cheng, J., Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F. & Wang, X. 2008b. Conjunctive query answering over an f-ALC knowledge base. In Web Intelligence/IAT Workshops 2008, 279–282.
Cheng, J., Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F. & Wang, X. 2009a. Deciding query entailment in fuzzy description logic knowledge bases. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems (DEXA 2009), 830–837.
Cheng, J., Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F. & Wang, X. 2009b. Deciding query entailment for fuzzy SHIN ontologies. In Proceedings of the 4th Annual Asian Semantic Web Conference (ASWC 2009), 120–134.
Corcho, O., Fernández-López, M. & Gómez-Pérez, A. 2003. Methodologies, tools and languages for building ontologies. Where is their meeting point? Data & Knowledge Engineering 46, 4164.
Costa, P. C. G., Laskey, K. B. & Lukasiewicz, T. 2008. Uncertainty representation and reasoning in the semantic web. In Semantic Web Engineering in the Knowledge Society, Cardoso, J. & Lytras, M. D. (eds). IGI Global, 315–340.
Cross, V. & Kandasamy, M. 2011. Fuzzy concept lattice construction: a basis for building fuzzy ontologies. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2011), 1743–1750.
Cross, V. & Voss, C. R. 1999. Fuzzy ontologies for multilingual document exploitation. In Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of NAFIPS, June, 392–397.
Cuenca Grau, B., Horrocks, I., Motik, B., Parsia, B., Patel-Schneider, P. & Sattler, U. 2008. OWL 2: the next step for OWL. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 6(4), 309322.
Cui, Z., Fang, W., Xian, X., Zhang, S. & Zhao, P. 2009. Extension of OWL with dynamic fuzzy logic. In Proceedings APWeb/WAIM Workshops, 67–76.
Dasiopoulou, S., Kompatsiaris, I. & Strintzis, M. G. 2009. Applying fuzzy DLs in the extraction of image semantics. Journal of Data Semantics XIV, 105132.
Dasiopoulou, S., Kompatsiaris, I. & Strintzis, M. G. 2010. Investigating fuzzy DLs-based reasoning in semantic image analysis. Multimedia Tools and Applications 46(2), 331370.
Dasiopoulou, S., Saathoff, C., Mylonas, P., Avrithis, Y., Kompatsiaris, Y., Staab, S. & Strinztis, M. G. 2008. Introducing context and reasoning in visual content analysis: an ontology-based framework. In Semantic Multimedia and Ontologies, Kompatsiaris, Y. (ed.). Springer, 99122.
Dellschaft, K. & Staab, S. 2008. Strategies for the evaluation of ontology learning. In Ontology Learning and Population: Bridging the Gap Between Text and Knowledge, Buitelaar, P. & Cimiano, P. (eds). IOS Press, 253272.
De Maio, C., Fenza, G., Loia, V. & Senatore, S. 2009. Towards an automatic fuzzy ontology generation. In Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1044–1049.
Dey, L. & Abulaish, M. 2006. Enhancing a biological concept ontology to fuzzy relational ontology with relations mined from text. In Proceedings of the 5th RSCTC 2006, 527–536.
Dey, L. & Abulaish, M. 2007. Fuzzy ontology-based text mining system for knowledge acquisition, ontology enhancement, and query answering from biomedical texts. In Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics, Fogel, G. B., Corne, D. W. & Pan, Y. (eds). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 297339.
Dey, L., Abulaish, M., Goyal, R. & Shubham, K. 2007. A rough-fuzzy ontology generation framework and its application to bio-medical text processing. In Proceedings of the 5th Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference (AWIC 2007), 74–79.
Ding, L., Kolari, P., Ding, Z., Avancha, S., Finin, T. & Joshi, A. 2005. Using ontologies in the semantic web: a survey. In TR-CS-05-07. UMBC.
Dubois, D. & Prade, H. 1993. Fuzzy sets and probability: misunderstandings, bridges and gaps. In Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1059–1068.
Duong, T., Nguyen, N., Kozierkiewicz-Hetma’nska, A. & Jo, G. 2011. Fuzzy ontology integration using consensus to solve conflicts on concept level. In New Challenges for Intelligent Information and Database Systems, Nguyen, N. T., Trawiński, B., & Jung, J. J. (eds). Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 33–42.
Ejegwa, P. A., Akowe, S. O., Otene, P. M. & Ikyule, J. M. 2014. An overview on intuitionistic fuzzy sets. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 3(3), 142145.
Elleuch, N., Zarka, M., Ammar, A. B. N. & Alimi, A. M. 2011. A fuzzy ontology-based framework for reasoning in visual video content analysis and indexing. In MDMKDD’11.
Escovar, E. L. G., Yaguinuma, C. A. & Biajiz, M. 2006. Using fuzzy ontologies to extend semantically similar data mining. In XXI Simpósio Brasileiro de Banco de Dados (SBBD), 16–30.
Fernández, S., Velasco, J. R. & López-Carmona, M. A. 2009. A fuzzy rule-based system for ontology mapping. In Proceedings of PRIMA’2009, 500–507.
Ferrara, A., Lorusso, D., Stamou, G., Stoilos, G., Tzouvaras, V. & Venetis, T. 2008. Resolution of conflicts among ontology mappings: a fuzzy approach. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Ontology Matching (OM 2008).
Ferreira-Satler, M., Romero, F. P., Olivas, J. A. & Serrano-Guerrero, J. 2014. Fuzzy ontology-based approach for automatic construction of user profiles. In Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing, Cornelis, C., Kryszkiewicz, M., Ślȩzak, D., Menasalvas Ruiz, E., Bello, R. & Shang, L. (eds), Springer International Publishing, 339346.
Gallova, S. 2007. Fuzzy ontology and information access on the web. IAENG International Journal of Computer Science 34(2), 234–238.
Gangemi, A., Catenacci, C., Ciaramita, M. & Lehmann, J. 2006. Modelling ontology evaluation and validation. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2006), 140–154.
Gao, M. & Liu, C. 2005. Extending OWL by fuzzy description logic. In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, 562–567.
Garcés, P. J, Olivas, J. A. & Romero, F. P. 2006. Concept-matching IR systems versus word-matching information retrieval systems: considering fuzzy interrelations for indexing web pages. JASIS&T 57(4), 564576.
Ghorbel, H., Bahri, A. & Bouaziz, R. 2009. Fuzzy Protégé for fuzzy ontology models. In Proceedings of the 11th International Protégé Conference IPC’2009, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam.
Ghorbel, H., Bahri, A. & Bouaziz, R. 2010. Fuzzy ontologies building method: fuzzy ontomethodology. In 2010 Annual Meeting of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS 2010).
Gómez-Romero, J., Bobillo, F., Ros, M., Molina-Solana, M., Ruiz, M. D. & Martín-Bautista, M. J. 2015. A fuzzy extension of the semantic building information model. Automation in Construction 57, 202212.
Gu, H. M., Wang, X., Ling, Y. & Shi, J. Q. 2007. Building a fuzzy ontology of edutainment using OWL. In ICCS 2007, Part III, LNCS 4489, 591–594, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Gurský, P., Horváth, T., Jirásek, J., Novotný, R., Pribolová, J., Vaneková, V. & Vojtáš, P. 2008. Knowledge processing for web search – an integrated model and experiments. Journal of Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience 9(1), 5159.
Haarslev, V., Pai, H. I. & Shiri, N. 2007. Optimizing tableau reasoning in ALC extended with uncertainty. In Proceedings of the 2007 International Workshop on Description Logics (DL-2007), 307–314.
Haarslev, V., Pai, H. & Shiri, N. 2008. Uncertainty reasoning for ontologies with general Tboxes in description logic. In Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web I, Costa, P. C. G., D’Amato, C., Fanizzi, N., Laskey, K. B., Laskey, K., Lukasiewicz, T., Nickles, M. & Pool, M. (eds), LNCS (LNAI), 5327, 385402. Springer.
Habiballa, H. 2007. Resolution strategies for fuzzy description logic. In Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology, 27–36.
Hadjiski, M. 2008. Adaptation of fuzzy ontology for cascade multi-agent system. In Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems, 59–64.
Hamani, M. S., Maamri, R., Kissoum, Y. & Sedrati, M. 2014. Unexpected rules using a conceptual distance based on fuzzy ontology. Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences 26(1), 99109.
Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P. F. & van Harmelen, F. 2003. From SHIQ and RDF to OWL: the making of a web ontology language. Journal of Web Semantics 1(1), 726.
Horrocks, I. & Patel-Schneider, P. F. 2004. Reducing OWL entailment to description logic satisfiability. Journal of Web Semantics 1(4), 345357.
Horrocks, I. & Sattler, U. 2001. Ontology reasoning in the SHOQ(D) description logic. In Proceedings of the 17th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2001), 199–204.
Hudelot, C., Atif, J. & Bloch, I. 2008. Fuzzy spatial relation ontology for image interpretation. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 159(15), 19291951.
He, L., Yue, P., Jiang, L. & Zhang, M. 2014. Fuzzy spatial relation ontology driven detection of complex geospatial features in a web service environment. Earth Science Informatics 8(1), 114.
Inyaem, U., Meesad, P., Haruechaiyasak, C. & Tran, D. 2010. Construction of fuzzy ontology-based terrorism event extraction. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (WKDD 2010), 391–394.
Ivanova, T. I. 2008. A metric and approach for fuzzy ontology evaluation. In Proceedings of International Scientific Conference Computer Science, 822–827.
Jiang, Y., Tang, Y., Wang, J. & Tang, S. 2009a. Reasoning within intuitionistic fuzzy rough description logics. Information Sciences 179(14), 23622378.
Jiang, Y., Wang, J., Deng, P. & Tang, S. 2009b. Reasoning within expressive fuzzy rough description logics. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 160(23), 34033424.
Jiang, Y., Wang, J., Tang, S. & Xiao, B. 2009c. Reasoning with rough description logics: an approximate concepts approach. Information Sciences 179(5), 600612.
Kang, D., Lu, J., Xu, B., Li, Y. & He, Y. 2005a. Two reasoning methods for extended fuzzy ALCH. In OTM 2005, Meersman, R. & Tari, Z. (eds), LNCS 3761, 1588–1595, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Kang, D., Xu, B., Lu, J., Li, Y., He, Y., Chu, W. C. & Chen, H. 2005b. Approximate information retrieval for heterogeneity ontologies. In International Conference on Cyberworlds, 539–544.
Knappe, R., Bulskov, H. & Andreasen, T. 2007. Perspectives on ontology-based querying. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 22(7), 739761.
Klinov, P. & Mazlack, L. J. 2006. Fuzzy rough approach to handling imprecision in semantic web ontology. In Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS 2006), 142–147.
Klir, G. J. & Yuan, B. 1995. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications. Prentice-Hall.
Lam, T. H. W. 2006. Fuzzy ontology map—a fuzzy extension of the hard-constraint ontology. In Proceedings of the 5th IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, 506–509.
Lau, R. Y. K., Lai, C. C. L. & Li, Y. 2009. Mining fuzzy ontology for a web-based granular information retrieval system. In RSKT 2009, LNCS 5589, 239–246, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Lee, C. S., Jian, Z. W. & Huang, L. K. 2005. A fuzzy ontology and its application to news summarization. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part B 35(5), 859880.
Lee, C. S., Wang, M. H. & Hagras, H. 2010. A type-2 fuzzy ontology and its application to personal diabetic-diet recommendation. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy System 18(2), 374395.
Li, Y., Xu, B., Lu, J. & Kang, D. 2006a. Discrete tableau algorithms for FSHI. In Proceedings of the 2006 International Workshop on Description Logics.
Li, Y., Xu, B., Lu, J. & Kang, D. 2006b. Reasoning technique for extended fuzzy ALCQ. In ICCSA (2), 1179–1188.
Li, Y., Xu, B., Lu, J., Kang, D. & Wang, P. 2005a. A family of extended fuzzy description logics. In Proceedings of the IEEE 29th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 221–226.
Li, Y., Xu, B., Lu, J., Kang, D. & Wang, P. 2005b. Extended fuzzy description logic ALCN. In Proceedings of KES (4), 896–902.
Liang, Q. & Mendel, J. M. 2000. Interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems: theory and design. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems 8(5), 535550.
Ling, Y., Gu, H. M., Wang, X. & Shi, J. Q. 2007. A fuzzy ontology and its application to computer games. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD 2007), 442–446.
Lisi, F. A. & Straccia, U. 2013. A logic-based computational method for the automated induction of fuzzy ontology axioms. Fundamenta Informaticae 124(4), 503519.
Liu, C. H., Lee, C. S., Wang, M. H., Tseng, Y. Y., Kuo, Y. L. & Lin, Y. C. 2013. Apply fuzzy ontology and FML to knowledge extraction for university governance and management. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing 4(4), 493513.
Loia, V. 2011. Fuzzy ontologies and fuzzy markup language: a novel vision in web intelligence. In Proceedings of AWIC 2011, 3–10.
Lu, J. J., Kang, D. Z., Zhang, Y. F., Li, Y. H. & Zhou, B. 2008. A family of fuzzy description logics with comparison expressions. In RSKT 2008, 395–402.
Lu, J. J., Xu, B. W., Li, Y. H. & Kang, D. Z. 2006. A family of extended fuzzy description logics. International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining 1(4), 384400.
Lukasiewicz, T. 2006. Fuzzy description logic programs under the answer set semantics for the semantic web. In Proceedings of RuleML-2006, 89–96.
Lukasiewicz, T & Straccia, U. 2007. Tightly integrated fuzzy description logic programs under the answer set semantics for the semantic web. In Proceedings of RR-2007, 289–298.
Lukasiewicz, T. & Straccia, U. 2008. Managing uncertainty and vagueness in description logics for the semantic web. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 6(4), 291308.
Lv, Y. H., Ma, Z. M. & Yan, L. 2008. Fuzzy RDF: a data model to represent fuzzy metadata. In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1439–1445.
Lv, Y. H., Ma, Z. M. & Zhang, X. 2009. Fuzzy ontology storage in fuzzy relational database. In Proceedings of International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD 2009), 242–246.
Ma, Z. M. 2006. Soft Computing in Ontologies and Semantic Web. Springer-Verlag.
Ma, Z. M., Lv, Y. & Yan, L. 2008. A fuzzy ontology generation framework from fuzzy relational databases. International Journal of Semantic Web Information Systems 4(3), 115.
Ma, Z. M. & Yan, L. 2008. A literature overview of fuzzy database models. Journal of Information Science and Engineering 24(1), 189202.
Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F. & Cheng, J. 2011a. Extracting knowledge from fuzzy relational database with description logic. Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering 18, 119.
Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F., Wang, H. & Yan, L. 2013. An overview of fuzzy description logics for the semantic web. The Knowledge Engineering Review 28(1), 134.
Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F., Yan, L. & Cheng, J. 2011b. Representing and reasoning on fuzzy UML models: a description logic approach. Expert Systems with Applications 38(3), 25362549.
Ma, Z. M., Zhang, F., Yan, L. & Lv, Y. 2010. Formal semantics-preserving translation from fuzzy ER model to fuzzy OWL DL ontology. Web Intelligence and Agent Systems: An International Journal 8(4), 397412.
Maedche, A. & Steffen, S. 2001. Ontology learning for the semantic web. IEEE Intelligent Systems 16(2), 7279.
Mailis, T., Stoilos, G., Simou, N. & Stamou, G. B. 2008. Tractable reasoning based on the fuzzy EL++ algorithm. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web (URSW 2008). CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 423.
Mailis, T. P., Stoilos, G. & Stamou, G. B. 2007. Expressive reasoning with horn rules and fuzzy description logics. In RR 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4524, 43–57. Springer.
Manolis, N. & Tzitzikas, Y. 2011. Interactive exploration of fuzzy RDF knowledge bases. In Proceedings of the 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference, 1–16.
Mazzieri, M. 2004. A fuzzy RDF semantics to represent trust metadata. In Proceedings of the 1st Italian Semantic Web Workshop: Semantic Web Applications and Perspectives.
Mazzieri, M. & Dragoni, A. F. 2005. A fuzzy semantics for semantic web languages. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web, 12–22.
Mazzieri, M. & Dragoni, A. F. 2008. A fuzzy semantics for the resource description framework. In URSW 2008, LNCS (LNAI) 5327, 244–261, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Mezei, J., Wikström, R. & Carlsson, C. 2015. Aggregating linguistic expert knowledge in type-2 fuzzy ontologies. Applied Soft Computing 35, 911920.
Molinera, J. A. M., Gálvez, I. J. P., Wikström, R., Viedma, E. H. & Carlsson, C. 2014. Designing a decision support system for recommending smartphones using fuzzy ontologies. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems, 323–334.
Motik, B. 2005. On the properties of metamodeling in OWL. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2005), LNCS 3729, 548–562. Springer.
Mylonas, P., Vallet, D., Castells, P., Fernandez, M. & Avrithis, Y. 2008. Personalized information retrieval based on context and ontological knowledge. Knowledge Engineering Review 23(1), 73100.
Nagypal, G. & Motik, B. 2003. A fuzzy model for representing subjective and vague temporal knowledge ontologies. In International Conference on Ontologies, Databases and Applications of Semantics, 906–923.
Nebel, B. 1990. Terminological reasoning is inherently intractable. Journal of Artificial Intelligence 43, 235249.
Nieto, M. A. M. 2003. An Overview of Ontologies. Technical report, Center for Research in Information and Automation Technologies and Interactive and Cooperative Technologies Lab, Universidad De Las Americas Puebla. http://www.starlab.vub.ac.be/teaching/ontologies_overview.pdf.
Nikravesh, M., Takagi, T., De Cock, M. & Guadarrama, S. 2004. The automatic construction of fuzzy ontologies for search in the WWW and the use of fuzzy spiders for the detection of objects in images. In 2004 EECS Research Summary, 135–139.
Niwattanakul, S., Martin, P., Eboueya, M. & Khaimook, K. 2007. Ontology mapping based on similarity measure and fuzzy logic. In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, 6383–6387.
Nguyen, N. T. & Truong, H. B. 2010. A consensus-based method for fuzzy ontology integration. In Proceedings of ACL/AFNLP (Software Demonstrations), 480–489.
Nováček, V. & Smrž, P. 2006. Empirical merging of ontologies: a proposal of universal uncertainty representation framework. In Proceedings of the European Semantic Web Conference, 65–79. Springer-Verlag.
Oliboni, B. & Pozzani, G. 2008. An XML Schema for Managing Fuzzy Documents. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Verona.
Olivas, J. A., Garcés, P. & Romero, F. P. 2003. An application of the FIS-CRM model to the FISS metasearcher: using fuzzy synonymy and fuzzy generality for representing concepts in documents. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning (Soft Computing in Recognition and Search) 34, 201219.
Pakonen, A., Tommila, T. & Hirvonen, J. 2010. A fuzzy ontology based approach for mobilizing industrial plant knowledge. In Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2010), 1–8.
Pan, J. Z., Stamou, G., Stoilos, G. & Thomas, E. 2007. Expressive querying over fuzzy DL-Lite ontologies. In Proceedings of DL-2007.
Pan, J. Z., Stamou, G., Stoilos, G., Thomas, E. & Taylor, S. 2008. Scalable querying service over fuzzy ontologies. In International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 08), 575–584.
Pan, J. Z., Thomas, E., Ren, Y. & Taylor, S. 2012. Exploiting tractable fuzzy and crisp reasoning in ontology applications. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine 7(2), 4553.
Papadopoulos, G., Mylonas, P., Mezaris, V., Avrithis, Y. & Kompatsiaris, I. 2006. Knowledge-assisted image analysis based on context and spatial optimization. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems 2(3), 1736.
Parry, D. 2006a. Fuzzy ontologies for information retrieval on the WWW. In Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web, Sanchez, E. (ed.), 21–48. Elsevier.
Parry, D. 2006b. Evaluation of a fuzzy ontology-based medical information system. International Journal of Health Information Systems and Informatics 1(1), 4051.
Parry, D. 2008. Tell me the important stuff – fuzzy ontologies and personal assessments for interaction with the semantic web. In Proceedings of FUZZ-IEEE 2008, 1295–1300.
Pawlak, J. 1982. Rough sets. International Journal of Information and Computers 11, 341356.
Pereira, R., Ricarte, I. & Gomide, F. 2009. Information retrieval with FROM: the fuzzy relational ontological model. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 24(3), 340356.
Pérez, I. J., Wikstrom, R., Mezei, J., Carlsson, C. & Herrera-Viedma, E. 2013. A new consensus model for group decision making using fuzzy ontology. Soft Computing 17, 16171627.
Pham, T. D. & Valliappan, S. 1993. Constructing the membership function of a fuzzy set with objective and subjective information. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering 8(1), 7582.
Quan, T. T., Hui, S. C. & Fong, A. C. M. 2006a. Automatic fuzzy ontology generation for semantic help-desk support. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 2(3), 155164.
Quan, T. T., Hui, S. C., Fong, A. C. M. & Cao, T. H. 2006b. Automatic fuzzy ontology generation for semantic web. IEEE Transaction on Knowledge and Data Engineering 18(6), 842856.
Rani, M., Muyeba, M. K. & Vyas, O. P. 2014. A hybrid approach using ontology similarity and fuzzy logic for semantic question answering. In Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics, Kundu, M. K., Mohapatra, D. P., Konar, A. & Chakraborty, A. (eds). Springer International Publishing, 601–609.
Reformat, M. & Ly, C. 2009. Ontological approach to development of computing with words based systems. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 50(1), 7291.
Rodger, J. A. 2013. A fuzzy linguistic ontology payoff method for aerospace real options valuation. Expert Systems with Applications 40(8), 28282840.
Rodríguez, N. D., Cuéllar, M. P., Lilius, J. & Calvo-Flores, M. D. 2014. A fuzzy ontology for semantic modelling and recognition of human behaviour. Knowledge-Based Systems 66, 4660.
Sánchez, D. & Tettamanzi, A. G. B. 2005. Generalizing quantification in fuzzy description logic. Advances in Soft Computing 2, 397411.
Sánchez, D. & Tettamanzi, A. G. B. 2006. Reasoning and quantification in fuzzy description logics. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Fuzzy Logic and Applications, 81–88.
Sanchez, E. 2006. Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web. Elsevier.
Schlobach, S., Klein, M. & Peelen, L. 2007. Description logics with approximate definitions: precise modeling of vague concepts. In Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2007), 557–562. AAAI Press.
Sezer, E., Yazıcı, A. & Yarımağan, Ü. 2006. Semantic information retrieval on the web. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advances in Information Systems, ADVIS 2006, 158–167.
Simou, N., Athanasiadis, T., Stoilos, G. & Kollias, S. 2008. Image indexing and retrieval using expressive fuzzy description logics. Signal, Image and Video Processing 2(4), 321335.
Singh, A., Juneja, D. & Sharma, A. K. 2011. A fuzzy integrated ontology model to manage uncertainty in semantic web: the FIOM. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering 3(3), 10571062.
Singh, S., Dey, L. & Abulaish, M. 2004. A framework for extending fuzzy description logic to ontology based document processing. In Proceedings of the AWIC 2004, 3034, 95–104.
Smets, P. 1997. Imperfect Information: Imprecision-Uncertainty, Uncertainty Management in Information Systems: From Needs to Solutions. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Smith, M. K., Welty, C. & McGuinness, D. L. 2004. OWL web ontology language. W3C Recommendation. http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/.
Soo, V. W. & Lin, C. Y. 2001. Ontology-based information retrieval in a multi-agent system for digital library. In Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 241–246.
Stasinos, K. & Georgios, A. 2007. Fuzzy-DL reasoning over unknown fuzzy degrees. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Semantic Web and Web Semantics, 1312–1318.
Stoilos, G., Simous, N., Stamou, G. & Kollias, S. 2006a. Uncertainty and the semantic web. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21(5), 8487.
Stoilos, G. & Stamou, G. 2007. Extending fuzzy description logics for the semantic web. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions (OWLED 2007).
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Kollias, S. 2008a. Reasoning with qualified cardinality restrictions in fuzzy description logics. In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2008), 637–644. IEEE Computer Society.
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Pan, J. Z. 2006b. Handling imprecise knowledge with fuzzy description logic. In Proceedings of the 2006 International Workshop on Description Logics.
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Pan, J. Z. 2008b. Classifying fuzzy subsumption in fuzzy-EL+. In Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Description Logics (DL 2008).
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Pan, J. Z. 2010. Fuzzy extensions of OWL: logical properties and reduction to fuzzy description logics. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 51, 656679.
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G., Pan, J. Z., Tzouvaras, V. & Horrocks, I. 2007. Reasoning with very expressive fuzzy description logics. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 30(8), 273320.
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Tzouvaras, V. 2005a. The fuzzy description logic f-SHIN. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web, 67–76.
Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Tzouvaras, V. 2005b. A fuzzy description logic for multimedia knowledge representation. In Proceedings of the 2005 International Workshop on Multimedia and the Semantic Web.
Stoilos, G., Straccia, U. & Stamou, G. 2006c. General concept inclusions in fuzzy description logics. In Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 457–461.
Straccia, U. 1998. A fuzzy description logic. In Proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-98), 594–599.
Straccia, U. 2001. Reasoning within fuzzy description logics. Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Research 14(1), 137166.
Straccia, U. 2004a. Transforming fuzzy description logics into classical description logics. In Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence, 385–399.
Straccia, U. 2004b. Uncertainty in Description Logic Programs. Technical report ISTI-2004-TR-01, Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
Straccia, U. 2005a. Towards a fuzzy description logic for the semantic web. In Proceedings of the 2nd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), 167–181.
Straccia, U. 2005b. Description logics with fuzzy concrete domains. In Proceedings of UAI-2005, 559–567.
Straccia, U. 2005c. Fuzzy ALC with fuzzy concrete domains. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Description Logics (DL 2005), 96–103.
Straccia, U. 2005d. Fuzzy Description Logics with Concrete Domains. Technical report 2005-TR-03, Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
Straccia, U. 2006a. Uncertainty and description logic programs over lattices. In Capturing Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web, Sanchez, E. (ed.). Elsevier, 115133.
Straccia, U. 2006b. Fuzzy description logic programs. In Proceedings of IPMU, 1818–1825.
Straccia, U. 2006c. Answering vague queries in fuzzy DL-Lite. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems (IPMU-06), 2238–2245.
Straccia, U. 2008. Managing uncertainty and vagueness in description logics, logic programs and description logic programs. In Reasoning Web, Baroglio, C., Bonatti, P. A., Małuszyński, J., Marchiori, M., Polleres, A. & Schaffert, S. (eds), LNCS 5224, 54–103, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Straccia, U. 2009a. SoftFacts: a top-k retrieval engine for a tractable description logic accessing relational databases. Technical report. Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
Straccia, U. 2009b. A minimal deductive system for general fuzzy RDF. In RR 2009, LNCS 5837, 166–181, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Straccia, U. 2011. Fuzzy logic, annotation domains and semantic web languages. In Proceedings of International Conference on Scalable Uncertainty Management, SUM-2011, 2–21.
Straccia, U. & Visco, G. 2007. DLMedia: an ontology mediated multimedia information retrieval system. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Description Logics (DL 2007).
Studer, R., Benjamins, R. & Fensel, D. 1998. Knowledge engineering: principles and methods. Data & Knowledge Engineering 25(1–2), 161198.
Tafazzoli, T. & Sadjadi, S. H. 2008. Malware fuzzy ontology for semantic web. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security 8, 153161.
Tamani, N., Liétard, L. & Rocacher, D. 2013. A fuzzy ontology for database querying with bipolar preferences. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 28(1), 436.
Todorov, K., Hudelot, C., Popescu, A. & Geibel, P. 2014. Fuzzy ontology alignment using background knowledge. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems 22(1), 75112.
Tommila, T., Hirvonen, J. & Pakonen, A. 2010. Fuzzy ontologies for retrieval of industrial knowledge – a case study. VTT Working Papers, 1459–7683.
Trappey, A., Trappey, C. V., Hsu, F. & Hsiao, D. W. 2009. A fuzzy ontological knowledge document clustering methodology. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics 39(3), 806814.
Truong, H. B., Nguyen, N. T. & Nguyen, P. K. 2011. Fuzzy ontology building and integration for fuzzy inference systems in weather forecast domain. In Intelligent Information and Database Systems, Nguyen, N. T., Kim, C. G. & Janiak, A. (eds). Springer Berlin Heidelberg 6591, 517–527.
Truong, H. B. & Quach, X. H. 2014. An overview of fuzzy ontology integration methods based on consensus theory. In Advanced Computational Methods for Knowledge Engineering, Do, T. V., Le Thi, H. A. & Nguyen, N. T. (eds), Springer International Publishing, 217227.
Tsatsou, D., Dasiopoulou, S., Kompatsiaris, I. & Mezaris, V. 2014. LiFR: a lightweight fuzzy DL reasoner. In The Semantic Web: ESWC 2014 Satellite Events, 263–267.
Valdés, A. R., Espin Andrade, R. A. & Marx-Gómez, J. 2011. Compensatory fuzzy ontology. In Towards a Trans-Disciplinary Technology for Business Intelligence: Gathering Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Management and Decision Making, Espin Andrade, R. A. & Marx Gómez, J. (eds). Racet Valdés, Ariel, 3544.
Vallet, D., Fernández, M., Castells, P., Mylonas, P. & Avrithis, Y. 2006. Personalized information retrieval in context. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Modeling and Retrieval of Context, 1–5.
Vaneková, V., Bella, J., Gurský, P. & Horváth, T. 2005. Fuzzy RDF in the semantic web: deduction and induction. In Proceedings of Workshop on Data Analysis (WDA 2005), 16–29.
Venetis, T., Stoilos, G., Stamou, G. & Kollias, S. 2007. f-DLPs: extending description logic programs with fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. In Proceedings of FUZZ-IEEE-2007, 1–6.
Vojtáš, P. 2006. A fuzzy EL description logic with crisp roles and fuzzy aggregation for web consulting. In Information Processing and Management under Uncertainty (IPMU), 1834–1841.
Vojtáš, P. 2007. EL description logic with aggregation of user preference concepts. In Information Modeling and Knowledge Bases XVIII, Duží, M. et al. (eds), IOS, 154–165.
Vrandeeie, D. & Sure, Y. 2007. How to design better ontology metrics. In Proceedings of ESWC, 311–325.
Wallace, M. & Avrithis, Y. 2004. Fuzzy relational knowledge representation and context in the service of semantic information retrieval. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE).
Wang, H. L. & Ma, Z. M. 2008. A decidable fuzzy description logic f-ALC(G). In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA 2008), 116–123.
Wang, H. L., Ma, Z. M. & Ying, J. 2009. FRESG: a kind of fuzzy description logic reasoner. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA 2009), 443–450.
Widyantoro, D. H. & Yen, J. 2001a. A fuzzy ontology-based abstract search engine and its user studies. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 1291–1294.
Widyantoro, D. H. & Yen, J. 2001b. Using fuzzy ontology for query refinement in a personalized abstract search engine. In Proceedings of the Joint Ninth IFSA World Congress and 20th NAFIPS International Conference, 610–615.
Wikström, R. & Mezei, J. 2015. Intrusion detection with type-2 fuzzy ontologies and similarity measures. In Intelligent Methods for Cyber Warfare, Yager, R. R., Reformat, M. Z. & Alajlan, N. (eds), Springer International Publishing, 151172.
Xu, X. L., Wu, Y. & Chen, J. K. 2010. Fuzzy FCA based ontology mapping. In The First International Conference on Networking and Distributed Computing, 181–185.
Yao, Y. Y. 1998. A comparative study of fuzzy sets and rough sets. Information Sciences 109(1–4), 227242.
Yaguinuma, C. A., Afonso, G. F., Ferraz, V., Borges, S. & Santos, M. T. P. 2010a. A fuzzy ontology-based semantic data integration system. In IEEE IRI, 207–212.
Yaguinuma, C. A., Santos, M. T. P., Camargo, H. A. & Nogueira, T. M. 2010b. A meta-ontology approach for representing vague linguistic terms and fuzzy rules for classification in ontologies. In Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops, 263–271.
Yen, J. 1991. Generalising term subsumption languages to fuzzy logic. In Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-91), 472–477.
Yeung, C. & Leung, H. 2006. Ontology with likeliness and typicality of objects in concepts. In ER 2006, LNCS 4215, 98–111, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Yildirim, Y., Yazici, A. & Yilmaz, T. 2013. Automatic semantic content extraction in videos using a fuzzy ontology and rule-based model. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 25(1), 4761.
Zadeh, L. A. 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control 8(3), 338353.
Zadeh, L. A. 1975. The concept of a linguistic variable and its application to approximate reasoning-1. Information Sciences 8, 199249.
Zadeh, L. A. 1978. Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 1(1), 328.
Zimmermann, A. P. A., Lopes, N. & Straccia, U. 2011. A General Framework for Representing, Reasoning and Querying with Annotated Semantic Web Data. Technical report, Computing Research Repository.
Zhai, J., Chen, Y., Wang, Q. & Lv, M. 2008. Fuzzy ontology models using intuitionistic fuzzy set for knowledge sharing on the semantic web. In 12th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design, 465–469.
Zhai, J., Shen, L., Zhou, Z. & Liang, Y. 2007. Fuzzy ontology model for knowledge management. In Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering.
Zhang, F. & Ma, Z. M. 2013. Construction of fuzzy ontologies from fuzzy UML models. International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems 6(3), 442472.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M. & Chen, X. 2015. Formalizing fuzzy object-oriented database models using fuzzy ontologies. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems 29(4), 114.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M., Lv, Y. & Wang, X. 2008a. Formal semantics-preserving translation from fuzzy ER model to fuzzy OWL DL ontology. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI 2008), 503–509.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M., Wang, H. & Meng, X. 2008b. A formal semantics-preserving translation from fuzzy relational database schema to fuzzy OWL DL ontology. In Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Semantic Web Conference on the Semantic Web (ASWC 2008), 46–60.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M. & Yan, L. 2008c. Representation and reasoning of fuzzy ER model with description logic. In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2008), 1358–1365. IEEE Computer Society.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M. & Yan, L. 2013a. Construction of fuzzy ontologies from fuzzy XML models. Knowledge-Based Systems 42, 2039.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M., Yan, L. & Cheng, J. 2011a. Storing fuzzy ontology in fuzzy relational database. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA 2011), 447–455.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M., Yan, L. & Cheng, J. 2013b. Construction of fuzzy OWL ontologies from fuzzy EER models: a semantics-preserving approach. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 229, 132.
Zhang, F., Ma, Z. M., Yan, L. & Wang, Y. 2011b. A description logic approach for representing and reasoning on fuzzy object-oriented database models. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 186(1), 125.
Zhao, Y., Wang, X. & Halang, W. A. 2007. Ontology mapping techniques in information integration. In Adaptive Technologies and Business Integration: Social Managerial and Organizational Dimensions, Cruz-Cunha, M., Conceicao Cortes, B. & Putnik, G. (eds). IGI Global, 306326.
Zhou, L., Zhang, L., Chen, J., Xie, Q., Ding, Q. & Sun, Z. X. 2006. The application of fuzzy ontology in design management. In Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence IC-AI, 278–282.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A survey on fuzzy ontologies for the Semantic Web

  • Fu Zhang (a1), Jingwei Cheng (a1) and Zongmin Ma (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.