ABBADIE, L., MARIOTTO, A. & MENAUT, J. C. 1992. Independence of savanna grasses from soil organic matter for their nitrogen supply. Ecology 73:608–613.
ABBADIE, L., GIGNOUX, J., LEPAGE, M. & LE ROUX, X. 2006. Environmental constraints on living organisms. Pp. 45–57 in Abbadie, L., Gignoux, J., Le Roux, X. & Lepage, M. (eds.). Lamto: structure, functioning and dynamics of a savanna system. Springer, New York.
ADAMS, M. A. & ATTIWILL, P. M. 1986. Nutrient cycling and nitrogen mineralization in eucalypt forests of south-eastern Australia: nutrient cycling and nutrient turnover. Plant and Soil 92:319–339.
ALDOUS, A. E. 1934. Effect of burning on Kansas bluestem pastures. Kansas Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 38:1–65.
ANDERSON, R. H., FUHLENDORF, S. D. & ENGLE, D. M. 2006. Soil nitrogen availability in tallgrass prairie under the fire-grazing interaction. Rangeland Ecology and Management 59:625–631.
ARANIBAR, J. N., MACKO, S. A., ANDERSON, I. C., POTGIETER, A. L. F., SOWRY, T. & SHUGART, H. H. 2003. Nutrient cycling responses to fire frequency in the Kruger National Park (South Africa) as indicated by stable isotope analysis. Isotopes Environmental Health Studies 39:141–158.
BARTON, J. M., BRISTOW, J. W. & VENTER, F. J. 1986. A summary of the Precambrian granitoid rocks of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 29:39–44.
BIGGS, R., BIGGS, H. C., DUNNE, T. T., GOVENDER, N. & POTGIETER, A. L. F. 2003. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design, and suggestions for data analysis. Koedoe 46:1–15.
BINKLEY, D. & MATSON, P. A. 1983. Disturbance, N availability, and nitrogen losses in an intensively managed loblolly pine plantation. Ecology 66:1360–1376.
BINKLEY, D., ABER, J., PASTOR, J. & NADELHOFFER, K. 1986. Nitrogen availability in some Wisconsin forests: comparisons of resin bags and on-site incubations. Biology and Fertility of Soils 2:77–82.
BLAIR, J. M. 1997. Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: a test of the transient maxima hypothesis. Ecology 78:2359–2368.
BOND, W. J. & VAN WILGEN, B. W. 1996. Fire and plants. Chapman and Hall, London. 263 pp.
BOND, W. J., WOODWARD, F. I. & MIDGLEY, G. F. 2005. The global distributions of ecosystem in a world without fire. New Phytologist 165:525–538.
BRIGGS, J. M. & KNAPP, A. K. 1995. Interannual variability in primary production in tallgrass prairie: climate, soil, moisture, topographic position, and fire as determinants of above-ground biomass. American Journal of Botany 82:1024–1030.
COVINGTON, W. W & SACKETT, S. S. 1986. Effects of periodic burning on soil nitrogen concentrations in Ponderosa pine. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50:452–457.
DIATLOFF, E. & RENGEL, Z. 2001. Compilation of simple spectrophotometric techniques for the determination of elements in nutrient solutions. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24:75–86.
DIJKSTRA, F. A., WRAGE, K., HOBBIE, S. E. & REICH, P. B. 2006. Tree patches show greater N losses but maintain higher soil N availability than grassland patches in a frequently burned Oak savanna. Ecosystems 9:441–452.
EITEN, G. 1992. How names are used for vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science 3:419–424.
FYNN, R. W. S., HAYNES, R. J. & O'CONNOR, T. G. 2003. Burning causes long-term changes in soil organic matter content of a South African grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35:677–687.
GERTENBACH, W. P. D. 1983. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 26:9–121.
GROGAN, P., BURNS, T. D. & CHAPIN, F. S. 2000. Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest. Oecologia 122:537–544.
HIGGINS, S. I., BOND, W. J., FEBRUARY, E. C., BRONN, A., EUSTON-BROWN, D. I. W., ENSLIN, B., GOVENDER, N., RADEMAN, L., O'REGAN, S., POTGIETER, A. L. F., SCHEITER, S., SOWRY, R., TROLLOPE, L. & TROLLOPE, W. S. W. 2007. Effects of four decades of fire manipulation on woody vegetation structure in savanna. Ecology 88:1119–1125.
HOBBS, N. T., SCHIMEL, D. S., OWENSBY, C. E. & OJIMA, D. S. 1991. Fire and grazing in the tallgrass prairie: contingent effects on nitrogen budgets. Ecology 72:1374–1382.
HOFFMANN, W. A., ORTHEN, B. & VARGAS, DO, NASCIMENTO, P. K. 2003. Comparative fire ecology of tropical savanna and forest trees. Functional Ecology 17: 720–726.
ISICHEI, A. O. 1980. Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algal soil crusts in Nigerian savanna. Pp. 191–198 in Rosswall, T. (ed.). Nitrogen cycling in West African ecosystems. SCOPE/UNEP/Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
JARRELL, W. M., ARMSTRONG, D. E., GRIGAL, D. F., KELLY, E. F., MONGER, H. C. & WEDIN, D. A. 1999. Soil water and temperature status. Pp. 55–73 in Robertson, G. P., Coleman, D. C., Bledsoe, C. S. & Sollins, P. (eds.). Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, New York.
JENSEN, M., MICHELSEN, A. & GASHAW, M. 2001. Responses in plant, soil inorganic and microbial nutrient pools to experimental fire, ash and biomass addition in a woodland savanna. Oecologia 128:85–93.
JOHNSON, L. C. & MATCHETT, J. R. 2001. Fire and grazing regulate belowground processes in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 82:3377–3389.
JONES, C. L., SMITHERS, N. L., SCHOLES, M. C. & SCHOLES, R. J. 1990. The effect of fire frequency on the organic components of a basaltic soil in the Kruger National Park. South African Journal for Plant and Soil 7:236–238.
KAUFFMAN, J. B., CUMMINGS, D. L. & WARD, D. E. 1994. Relationships of fire, biomass and nutrient dynamics along a vegetation gradient in the Brazilian cerrado. Journal of Ecology 82:519–531.
KAYE, J. P. & HART, S. C. 1998. Ecological restoration alters nitrogen transformations in a ponderosa pine-bunchgrass ecosystem. Ecological Applications 8:1052–1060.
KNAPP, A. K., BRIGGS, J. M., BLAIR, J. M. & TURNER, C. L. 1998. Patterns and controls of aboveground net primary production in tallgrass prairie. Pp. 193–221 in Knapp, A. K., Briggs, J. M., Hartnett, D. C. & Collins, S. L. (eds.). Grassland dynamics, long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie. Oxford University Press, New York.
KNOEPP, J. D. & SWANK, W. T. 1998. Rates of nitrogen mineralization across an elevation and vegetation gradient in the southern Appalachians. Plant and Soil 204:235–241.
LUDWIG, F., DE KROON, H., BERENDSE, F. & PRINS, H. H. T. 2004. The influence of savanna trees on nutrient, water and light availability and the understorey vegetation. Plant Ecology 170:93–105.
MEDINA, E. 1982. Nitrogen balance in the Trachypogon grasslands of Central Venezuela. Plant and Soil 67:305–314.
MENAUT, J.-C., ABBADIE, L. & VITOUSEK, P. M. 1993. Nutrient and organic matter dynamics in tropical ecosystems. Pp. 215–231 in Crutzen, P. J. & Goldammer, J. G. (eds.). The ecological, atmospheric and climatic importance of vegetation fires. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester.
MILLS, A. J. & FEY, M. V. 2005. Interactive response of herbivores, soils and vegetation to annual burning in a South African savanna. Austral Ecology 30:435–444.
MUCINA, L. & RUTHERFORD, M. C. 2006. The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. 808 pp.
OJIMA, D. S., PARTON, W. J., SCHIMEL, D. S. & OWENSBY, C. E. 1990. Simulated impacts of annual burning on prairie ecosystems. Pp. 118–132 in Collins, S. C. & Wallace, L. L. (eds.). Fire in North American tallgrass prairies. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma City.
OJIMA, D. S., SCHIMEL, D. S., PARTON, W. J. & OWENSBY, C. E. 1994. Long- and short-term effects of fire on nitrogen cycling in tallgrass prairie. Biogeochemistry 24:67–84.
PETERSON, D. W. & REICH, P. B. 2001. Prescribed fire in oak savanna: fire frequency effects on stand structure and dynamics. Ecological Applications 11:914–927.
RAISON, R. J. 1979. Modification and the soil environment by vegetation fires, with particular reference to nitrogen transformations: a review. Plant and Soil 51:73–108.
REICH, P. B., PETERSON, D. W., WEDIN, D. A. & WRAGE, K. 2001. Fire and vegetation effects on productivity and nitrogen cycling across a forest-grassland continuum. Ecology 82:1703–1719.
ROBERTSON, G. P., WEDIN, D., GROFFMAN, P. M., BLAIR, J. M., HOLLAND, E. A., NADELHOFFER, K. J. & HARRIS, D. 1999. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability: nitrogen mineralization, nitri fication, and soil respiration potentials. Pp. 258–271 in Robertson, G. P., Coleman, D. C., Bledsoe, C. S. & Sollins, P. (eds.). Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, New York.
RUSSELL-SMITH, J., WHITEHEAD, P. J., COOK, G. D. & HOARE, J. L. 2003. Response of Eucalyptus-dominated savanna to frequent fires: lessons from Munmarlary, 1973–1996. Ecological Monographs 75:349–375.
SANKARAN, M., HANAN, N. P., SCHOLES, R. J., RATNAM, J., AUGUSTINE, D. J., CADE, B. S., GIGNOUX, J., HIGGINS, S. I., LE ROUX, X., LUDWIG, F., ARDO, J., BANYIKA, F., BRONN, A., BUCINI, G., CAYLOR, K. K., COUGHENOUR, M. B., DIOUF, A., EKAYA, W., FERAL, C. J., FEBRUARY, E. C., FROST, P. G. H., HIERNAUX, P., HRABAR, H., METZGER, K. L., PRINS, H. H. T., RINGROSE, S., SEA, W., TEWS, J., WORDEN, J. & ZAMBATIS, N. 2005. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas. Nature 438:846–849.
SEASTEDT, T. R. & RAMUNDO, R. A. 1990. The influence of fire on belowground processes of tallgrass prairie. Pp. 99–177 in Collins, S. C. & Wallace, L. L. (eds.). Fire in North American tallgrass prairies. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma City.
SCHOLES, R. J. 1990. The influence of soil fertility on the ecology of southern African dry savannas. Journal of Biogeography 17:415–419.
SCHOLES, R. J. & ARCHER, S. R. 1997. Tree-grass interactions in savannas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:517–544.
SINGH, R. S. 1994. Changes in soil nutrients following burning of dry tropical savanna. International Journal of Wildland Fire 4:187–194.
SKOWNO, A. L. & BOND, W. J. 2003. Bird community composition in an actively managed savanna reserve, importance of vegetation structure and vegetation composition. Biodiversity and Conservation 12:2279–2294.
TAINTON, N. M. & MENTIS, M. T. 1983. Fire in grassland. Pp. 40–52 in Booysen, P. V. & Tainton, N. M. (eds.). Ecological effects of fire in South African ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
TURNER, C. L., BLAIR, J. M., SCHARTZ, R. J. & NEEL, J. C. 1997. Soil N and plant responses to fire, topography and supplemental N in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 78:1832–1843.
WALTER, H. 1971. Ecology of tropical and subtropical vegetation. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 539 pp.
WAN, S., HUI, D. & LUO, Y. 2001. Fire effects on nitrogen pools and dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Ecological Applications 11:1349–1165.
WEDIN, D. A. 1995. Species, nitrogen and grassland dynamics: the constraints of stuff. Pp. 253–265 in Jones, C. & Lawton, J. H. (eds.). Linking species and ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, New York.
WEDIN, D. A. & PASTOR, J. 1993. Nitrogen mineralization dynamics in grass monocultures. Oecologia 96:186–192.