Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The long-term effect of typhoons on vascular epiphytes in Taiwan

  • Rebecca C.-C. Hsu (a1), Jan H.D. Wolf (a2), Jer-Min Tsai (a3) and Yi-Chin Lin (a4)

Abstract:

We used all 167 typhoon warnings issued by the Taiwanese Central Weather Bureau from 1958–2006 to assess the long-term effect of cyclone disturbance on vascular epiphytes. Tracks and eyes of past typhoons were plotted as circles with radii of Beaufort scale 7 and 10, and the frequency of each cohort in 1-km2 grid cells was calculated. The presence of vascular epiphytes in the same grid cells was predicted using species distribution models (SDMs). First, we used herbarium specimens and other sources to compile a comprehensive georeferenced vascular epiphyte database that contained 39084 records in 331 species. Next, we assigned each epiphyte record to a cell in the same 1-km2 grid as above. Finally, we used SDMs (MaXent), based on 30 environmental variables except typhoon frequency, to predict the potential presence of each species in the grid cells. For our analysis we only considered cells east of the central mountain ridge where typhoons hit with full force. After elimination of rare species and species that could not be validated in the SDMs, we were left with 156 epiphyte species in 10725 1-km2 cells. The number of projected species in the cells was 36.5 on average, varying between two and 82 species. Correlation analyses showed that, over time, typhoons led to a decrease in epiphyte richness at Beaufort scale 7 and 10 (Pearson's r = −0.07 and −0.08 respectively). Ferns, orchids, hemiepiphytes and dicotyledons generally showed the same pattern, except hemiepiphytes that showed a positive correlation at B7 (Pearson's r = 0.15). A partial canonical correspondence ordination analysis showed that, independent of temperature- and rainfall-related variables, Beaufort scale 7 and 10 typhoons also had significant influence on the species composition of the vascular epiphyte communities in the landscape. We recommend in situ monitoring of epiphytes over a long period to corroborate the suggestion from this indirect study that typhoons have a long-term effect on the distribution of epiphytes in Taiwan.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: ecogarden@tfri.gov.tw

References

Hide All
BASNET, K., LIKENS, G. E., SCATENA, F. N. & LUGO, A. E. 1992. Hurricane Hugo: damage to a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 8:4755.
BATKE, S. P. & KELLY, D. L. 2015. Changes in the distribution of mechanically dependent plants along a gradient of past hurricane impact. AoB Plants 7:plv096.
BENZING, D. H. 1998. Vulnerabilities of tropical forests to climate change: the significance of resident epiphytes. Climatic Change 39:519540.
CASCANTE‐MARÍN, A., OOSTERMEIJER, G., WOLF, J. & FUCHS, E. J. 2014. Genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of an epiphytic bromeliad in Costa Rican montane secondary forest patches. Biotropica 46:425432.
CHANG, Y.-H. 2001. A study on the effect of wind on forest structure at Fushan Experimental Forest. Department of Geography. National Changhua University of Education, Changhua. 108 pp. (In Chinese.)
CHAZDON, R. L. 2003. Tropical forest recovery: legacies of human impact and natural disturbances. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 6:5171.
CHU, H.-J. 2014. Spatiotemporal analysis of vegetation index after typhoons in the mountainous watershed. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 28:2027.
CHU, H.-J., LIAU, C.-J., LIN, C.-H. & SU, B.-S. 2012. Integration of fuzzy cluster analysis and kernel density estimation for tracking typhoon trajectories in the Taiwan region. Expert Systems with Applications 39:94519457.
CHUANG, Y.-C. 2005. The crown disturbance of a typhoon in Nanjenshan Forest Ecosystem. Department of Forestry, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology, Pingtung. 102 pp. (In Chinese.)
CREESE, C., LEE, A. & SACK, L. 2011. Drivers of morphological diversity and distribution in the Hawaiian fern flora: trait associations with size, growth form, and environment. American Journal of Botany 98:956966.
DAWSON, J. 1963. New Caledonia and New Zealand – a botanical comparison. Tuatara 11:178193.
GENTRY, A. H. & DODSON, C. H. 1987. Diversity and biogeography of neotropical vascular epiphytes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:205233.
GOODE, L. K. & ALLEN, M. F. 2008. The impacts of Hurricane Wilma on the epiphytes of El Edén Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 135:377387.
HILTON, R. G., GALY, A., HOVIUS, N., CHEN, M.-C., HORNG, M.-J. & CHEN, H. 2008. Tropical-cyclone-driven erosion of the terrestrial biosphere from mountains. Nature Geoscience 1:759762.
HSU, R. C.-C. & WOLF, J. H. D. 2009. Diversity and phytogeography of vascular epiphytes in a tropical-subtropical transition island, Taiwan. Flora 204:612627.
HSU, R. C. C., WOLF, J. H. D. & TAMIS, W. L. M. 2014. Regional and elevational patterns in vascular epiphyte richness on an East Asian Island. Biotropica 46:549555.
KANG, R. L., LIN, T. C., JAN, J. F. & HWONG, J. L. 2005. Changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at the Fushan Experimental Forest in relation to typhoon Bilis of 2000. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 20:7387.
KELLY, D. L., O'DONAVAN, G., FEEHAN, J., MURPHY, S., DRANGEID, S. O. & MARCANO-BERTI, L. 2004. The epiphyte communities of a montane rain forest in the Andes of Venezuela: patterns in the distribution of the flora. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:643666.
KRESS, W. J. 1986. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes: an update. Selbyana 9:222.
LEE, M.-F., LIN, T.-C., VADEBONCOEUR, M. A. & HWONG, J.-L. 2008. Remote sensing assessment of forest damage in relation to the 1996 strong typhoon Herb at Lienhuachi Experimental Forest, Taiwan. Forest Ecology and Management 255:32973306.
LIN, T.-C., HAMBURG, S. P., HSIA, Y.-J., LIN, T.-T., KING, H.-B., WANG, L.-J. & LIN, K.-C. 2003. Influence of typhoon disturbances on the understory light regime and stand dynamics of a subtropical rain forest in northeastern Taiwan. Journal of Forest Research 8:139145.
LIN, T.-C., HAMBURG, S. P., LIN, K.-C., WANG, L.-J., CHANG, C.-T., HSIA, Y.-J., VADEBONCOEUR, M. A., MCMULLEN, C. M. M. & LIU, C.-P. 2011. Typhoon disturbance and forest dynamics: lessons from a northwest Pacific subtropical forest. Ecosystems 14:127143.
LIN, Y.-H., TSAI, J.-M., LAI, J.-T. & LIN, Y.-C. 2006. The development and applications of the historical typhoon analysis system (HTAS) – the disturbance regime of typhoons in Hengchun Peninsula. National Taiwan Museum Quarterly 59:5060. (In Chinese.)
LUGO, A. E. 2008. Visible and invisible effects of hurricanes on forest ecosystems: an international review. Austral Ecology 33:368398.
MABRY, C. M., HAMBURG, S. P., LIN, T.-C., HORNG, F.-W., KING, H.-B. & HSIA, Y.-J. 1998. Typhoon disturbance and stand-level damage patterns at a subtropical forest in Taiwan. Biotropica 30:238250.
MIGENIS, L. E. & ACKERMAN, J. D. 1993. Orchid-phorophyte relationships in a forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9:231240.
MÚJICA, E., RAVENTÓS, J., GONZÁLEZ, E. & BONET, A. 2013. Long-term hurricane effects on populations of two epiphytic orchid species from Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba. Lankesteriana 13: 4755.
OBERBAUER, S. F., VON KLEIST, K., WHELAN, K. R. T. & KOPTUR, S. 1996. Effects of Hurricane Andrew on epiphyte communities within cypress domes of Everglades National Park. Ecology 77:964967.
PHILLIPS, S. J., ANDERSON, R. P. & SCHAPIRE, R. E. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190:231259.
REYES-BETANCORT, J. A., SANTOS GUERRA, A., GUMA, I. R., HUMPHRIES, C. J. & CARINE, M. A. 2008. Diversity, rarity and the evolution and conservation of the Canary Islands endemic flora. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 65:2545.
SCHOTT, T., LANDSEA, C., HAFELE, G., LORENS, J., TAYLOR, A., THURM, H., WARD, B., WILLIS, M. & ZALESKI, W. 2012. The Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. NOAA/National Weather Service [Internet]:1–4.
TER BRAAK, C. J. F. 1986. Canonical Correspondence Analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67:11671179.
TSAI, F., HWANG, J.-H., CHEN, L.-C. & LIN, T.-H. 2010. Post-disaster assessment of landslides in southern Taiwan after 2009 Typhoon Morakot using remote sensing and spatial analysis. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 10:21792190.
WU, C.-C. & KUO, Y.-H. 1999. Typhoons affecting Taiwan: current understanding and future challenges. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80:6780.
ZOTZ, G. 2013. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes – a critical update. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 171:453481.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed