ARATRAKORN, S., THUNHIKORN, S. & DONALD, P. F. 2006. Changes in bird communities following conversion of lowland forest to oil palm and rubber plantations in southern Thailand. Bird Conservation International 16:71–82.
BASIRON, Y. 2007. Palm oil production through sustainable plantations. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109:289–295.
BASSET, Y., ABERLENC, H., BARRIOS, H., CURLETTI, G., BÉRENGER, J., VESCO, J., CAUSSE, P., HAUG, A., HENNION, A., LESOBRE, L., MARQUEÁS, F. & O'MEARA, R. 2001. Stratification and diel activity of arthropods in a lowland rainforest in Gabon. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 72:585–607.
CHANG, M. S., HII, J., BUTTNER, P. & MANSOOR, F. 1997. Changes in abundance and behaviour of vector mosquitoes induced by land use during the development of an oil palm plantation in Sarawak. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91:382–386.
CHEY, V. K. 2006. Impacts of forest conversion on biodiversity as indicated by moths. Malayan Nature Journal 57:383–418.
CHUNG, A. Y. C., EGGLETON, P., SPEIGHT, M. R., HAMMOND, P. M. & CHEY, V.K. 2000a. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90:475–496.
CHUNG, A. Y. C., HAMMOND, P. M., EGGLETON, P., SPEIGHT, M. R. & CHEY, V. K. 2000b. A general survey of the Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) assemblage in Sabah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 54:355–368.
COSTA, J. T. & CROSSLEY, D. A. 1991. Diel patterns of canopy arthropods associated with three tree species. Environmental Entomology 20:1542–1548.
DAVIS, A. L. V. & PHILIPS, T. K. 2005. Effect of deforestation on a Southwest Ghana Dung Beetle Assemblage (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at the periphery of Ankasa Conservation area. Community and Ecosystem Ecology 34:1081–1088.
ELLWOOD, M. D. F. & FOSTER, W. A. 2004. Doubling the estimate of arthropod biomass in a rainforest canopy. Nature 429:549–551.
ELLWOOD, M. D. F., JONES, D. T. & FOSTER, W. A. 2002. Canopy ferns in lowland Dipterocarp forest support a prolific abundance of ants, termites, and other arthropods. Biotropica 34:575–583.
FITTKAU, E. J. & KLINGE, H. 1973. On biomass and trophic structure of a central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem. Biotropica 5:2–14.
FITZHERBERT, E. B., STRUEBIG, M. J., MOREL, A., DANIELSEN, F., BRÜHL, C. A., DONALD, P. F. & PHALAN, B. 2008. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23:538–545.
FOX, J. E. D. 1978. The natural vegetation of Sabah, Malaysia. 1. The physical environment and classification. Tropical Ecology 19:218–239.
FREIBERG, M. 2001. The influence of epiphyte cover on branch temperature in a tropical tree. Plant Ecology 153:241–250.
GREEN, R. E., CORNELL, S. J., SCHARLEMANN, J. P. W. & BALMFORD, A. 2005. Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307:550–555.
HASSALL, M., JONES, D. T., TAITI, S., LATIPI, Z., SUTTON, S. L. & MOHAMMED, M. 2006. Biodiversity and abundance of terrestrial isopods along a gradient of disturbance in Sabah, East Malaysia. European Journal of Soil Biology 42:197–207.
HOLTTUM, R. E. 1966. Flora of Malaya 2: ferns. (Second edition). Government Printing Office, Singapore. 419 pp.
KABAKOV, O. N. 1967. Coleoptera living in epiphytic plants in the tropical forest of Vietnam. Entomological Reviews 46:691–698.
KARASAWA, S. & HIJII, N. 2006. Effects of distribution and structural traits of bird's nest ferns (Asplenium nidus) on orabatid (Acari: Orabatida) communities in a subtropical Japanese forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22:213–222.
LEMMON, P. 1957. A new instrument for measuring forest overstory density. Journal of Forestry 55:667–669.
LIOW, L. H., SODHI, N. S. & ELMQVIST, T. 2001. Bee diversity along a disturbance gradient in tropical lowland forests of South-East Asia. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:180–192.
MARIAU, D., DESMIER DE CHENON, R. & SUDHARTO, P. S. 1991. Oil palm pests and their enemies in Southeast Asia. Oléagineux 46:399–476.
MARSH, C. W. & GREER, A. G. 1992. Forest land-use in Sabah, Malaysia – an introduction to Danum Valley. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B Biological Sciences 335:331–339.
MAYFIELD, M. M. 2005. The importance of nearby forest to known and potential pollinators of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.; Arecaceae) in southern Costa Rica. Economic Botany 59:190–196.
MCMORROW, J. & TALIP, M. A. 2001. Decline of forest area in Sabah, Malaysia: relationship to state policies, land code and land capability. Global Environmental Change 11:217–230.
NADARAJAH, P. & NAWAWI, A. 1993. Mycorrhizal status of epiphytes in Malaysian oil palm plantations. Mycorrhiza 4:21–25.
NADKARNI, N. M. & LONGINO, J. T. 1990. Arthropods in canopy and ground organic-matter in a neotropical montane forest, Costa-Rica. Biotropica 22:286–289.
PAOLETTI, M. G., Taylor, R. A. J., STINNER, B. R. & BENZING, D. H. 1991. Diversity of soil fauna in the canopy and forest floor of a Venezuelan cloud forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7:373–383.
PEH, K. S.-H., SODHI, N. S., DE JONG, J., SEKERCIOGLU, C. H., YAP, C. A.-M. & LIM, S. L.-H. 2006. Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Diversity and Distributions 12:572–581.
PFEIFFER, M., HO, C. T. & TEH, C. L. 2008. Exploring arboreal ant community compostion and co-occurrence patterns in plantations of oil palm Elaeis guineenisis in Borneo and Peninsula Malaysia. Ecography 31:21–32.
PIGGOTT, A. G. 1996. Ferns of Malaysia in colour. Tropical Press Sdn Bhd Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 267 pp.
RICHARDSON, B. A. 1999. The bromeliad microcosm and the assessment of faunal diversity in a Neotropical forest. Biotropica 31:321–336.
SAMWAYS, M. J. 2005. Insect diversity conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 39 pp.
SCHOENER, T. W. 1980. Length-weight regressions in tropical and temperate forest-understory insects. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 73: 106–109.
SERGEEVA, T. K., KHOLOPOVA, L. B., TEN, N. T. & THU, N. S. 1989. Animal populace and properties of “perched soils” of the tropical epiphyte Asplenium nidus L. Soviet Journal of Ecology 20:284–293.
SODHI, N. S., KOH, L. P., BROOK, B. W. & NG, P. K. L. 2004. Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:654–660.
STUNTZ, S., ZIEGLER, C., SIMON, U. & ZOTZ, G. 2002. Diversity and structure of the arthropod fauna within three canopy epiphyte species in central Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18:161–176.
TEO, L. 2000. Mechanisation in oil palm plantations: achievements and challenges. Malaysian Oil Science and Technology 11:70–77.
TURNER, E. C. & FOSTER, W. A. 2006. Assessing the influence of bird's nest ferns (Asplenium spp.) on the local microclimate across a range of habitat disturbances in Sabah, Malaysia. Selbyana 27:195–200.
TURNER, E. C., SNADDON, J. L., FAYLE, T. M. & FOSTER, W. A. 2008. Oil palm research in context: identifying the need for biodiversity assessment. PLoS ONE 3:1–4.
WAHID, M. B., ABDULLAH, S. N. A. & HENSON, I. E. 2005. Oil palm- achievements and potential. Plant Production Science 8:288–297.
WALSH, R. P. D. & NEWBERY, D. M. 1999. The ecoclimatology of Danum, Sabah, in the context of the world's rainforest regions, with particular reference to dry periods and their impact. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B Biological Sciences 354:1869–1883.
WALTER, D. E. & BEHAN-PELLETIER, V. 1999. Mites in forest canopies: filling the size-distribution shortfall? Annual Review of Entomology 44:1–19.
WHITMORE, T. C. 1998. An introduction to tropical forests. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 141 pp.
YATABE, Y. & MURAKAMI, N. 2003. Recognition of cryptic species in the Asplenium nidus complex using molecular data – a progress report. Telopea 10:487–496.