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The Collection of the Qurʾān in the Early Shīʿite Discourse: The traditions ascribed to the fifth Imām Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad al-Bāqir1

  • SEYFEDDIN KARA (a1)
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In the introduction to his article, entitled “The Murder of Ibn abī l-Ḥuqayq: On the Origin and Reliability of Some Maghāzī Reports”, Harald Motzki summarises “special biases” by which western scholars deal with the Muslim sources concerning the life of the Prophet. For Motzki, one of the most important biases held against the Muslim sources is that “The background is theological, in that the traditions tried to create a specific theology of history, or in that the Muslims simply tended to put a halo around the founder of their religion”.2

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1

This paper is based on my PhD thesis. I am greatly indebted to Harald Motzki and Muhammad Saeed Bahmanpour for their criticism, suggestions and numerous corrections on my thesis. I have included some of their comments in the paper. I also extend my gratitude to Robert Gleave, James Piscatori, Colin Turner, Andreas Görke and the anonymous readers for their valuable suggestions and criticism, which further improved the paper. Needless to say, the author takes full responsibility for any shortcomings that may exist in the paper.

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2 Motzki, Harald, “Murder of Ibn Abī l-Huqayq: On the Origin and Reliability of Some Maghazi-Reports”, in The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources, (ed.) Motzki, Harald (Leiden, 2000), p. 171.

3 Its title is “Suppression of ʿAlī ibn abī Ṭālib's codex: Study of the traditions on the earliest copy of the Qur’ān” (Under review).

4 Both Schoeler and Motzki developed the isnād-cum-matn method independently of each other. Schoeler's study Charakter und Authentie der muslimischen Überlieferung über das Leben Mohammeds (published in English in 2010 under the title The Biography of Muḥammad: Nature and Authenticity) was published in the same year (1996) as Motzki's study “Quo vadis Ḥadīṯ-Forschung” (published in English in 2010 in his Analysing Muslim Traditions).

5 See Melchert, Christopher, “The Early History of Islamic Law”, in Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, (ed.) Berg, Herbert, Islamic History and Civilization, Studies and Texts, vol. 49 (Leiden, 2003), pp. 293324; Schneider, Irene, “Narrativität und Authentizität: Die Geschichte vom weisen Propheten, dem dreisten Dieb und dem koranfesten Gläubiger”, Der Islam 77, 1 (2000), pp. 84115. doi:10.1515/islm.2000.77.1.84.; Berg, Herbert, The Development of Exegesis in Early Islam: The Authenticity of Muslim Literature from the Formative Period (Richmond, 2000).; Shoemaker, Stephen J., “In Search of ʽUrwa's Sīra: Some Methodological Issues in the Quest for ‘Authenticity’ in the Life of Muḥammad”, Der Islam 85, 2 (January 2011), p. 292, doi:10.1515/islam.2011.006. For Motzki, Schoeler and Görke‘s rebuttal see Görke, Andreas, Motzki, Harald, and Schoeler, Gregor, “First Century Sources for the Life of Muḥammad? A Debate”, Der Islam 89, 1–2 (January 2012), pp. 259. Also see Motzki, Harald, “The Question of the Authenticity of Muslim Traditions Reconsidered: A Review Article”, in Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, edited by Berg, Herbert, Islamic History and Civilization, Studies and Texts, vol. 49 (Leiden, 2003), pp. 211–57.; Motzki, Harald, Analysing Muslim Traditions: Studies in Legal, Exegetical and Maghāzī Ḥadīth, Islamic History and Civilization, Studies and Texts, vol. 78 (Leiden, 2011), pp. 209303.

6 Motzki, Harald, “Dating Muslim Traditions: A Survey”, Arabica 52, 2 (April 1, 2005), pp. 204253.

7 Ibid., pp. 204–206.

8 Ibid., pp. 205–206.

9 Ibid., p. 214.

10 Ibid., p. 215.

11 Ibid., p. 235.

12 An English translation of the article was published in Hadīth: Origins and Developments, (ed.) Harald Motzki (Aldershot, 2004), pp. 245–257.

13 Harald Motzki, “Dating Muslim Traditions”, p. 250.

14 Juynboll describes the partial common link as “transmitters who receive something from a common link (cl) (or any other sort of transmitter from a generation after the cl) and pass it on to two or more of their pupils. . .” (Juynboll, G.H.A., “Some Isnād-Analytical Methods Illustrated on the Basis of Several Woman-Demeaning Sayings From Ḥadīth Literature”, in Ḥadīth: Origins and Developments, edited by Motzki, Harald, 28, pp.175216. The Formation of the Classical Islamic World (Aldershot, 2004), p.184.

15 Harald Motzki, “Dating Muslim Traditions”, p. 251.

16 Ibid.

17 Harald Motzki, “Murder of Ibn Abī l-Ḥuqayq: On the Origin and Reliability of Some Maghāzī-Reports”, p. 174.

18 Ibid.

19 Harald Motzki, Analysing Muslim Traditions: Studies in Legal, Exegetical and Maghāzī Ḥadīth, p. 235.

20 Ibid.

21 Harald Motzki, “Dating Muslim Traditions”, p. 251.

22 Harald Motzki, Analysing Muslim Traditions: Studies in Legal, Exegetical and Maghāzī Ḥadīth, p. 91.

23 See also Görke, Andreas, “Eschatology, History, and the Common Link: A Study in Methodology”, in Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, (ed.) Berg, Herbert (Leiden, 2003), p. 182.

24 Motzki, Harald, “The Prophet and the Cat: On Dating Mālik's Muwaṭṭa’ and Legal Traditions”, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 22 (1988), pp. 1874.

25 Calder, Norman, Studies in Early Muslim Jurisprudence (Oxford, 1993).

26 Ibid., p. 37.

27 Ibid., pp. 35–36.

28 Harald Motzki, “The Prophet and the Cat: On Dating Mālik's Muwaṭṭa’ and Legal Traditions”, p. 58.

29 Ibid., p. 59.

30 Ibid.

31 For an examination of the past and present scholars’ views on the issue see Aḥmad b. al-Sayyārī, Muḥammad, Revelation and Falsification, (ed) Kohlberg, Etan and Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali, Text and Studies on the Qur’ān (Leiden, 2009).; Modarressi, Hossein, “Early Debates on the Integrity of the Qur’ān: A Brief Survey”, Studia Islamica, 77 (January 1, 1993), pp. 539. doi:10.2307/1595789.; Eliash, JosephThe Shī’ite Qur’ān”, Arabica 16, 1 (1969), pp. 1524. doi:10.1163/157005869X00162.; Lawson, B. Todd, “Note for the Study of a Shīʿī Qur’ān”, Journal of Semitic Studies XXXVI, 2 (1991), pp. 279295. doi:10.1093/jss/XXXVI.2., p. 279.; Tisdall, W. St. Clair, “Shi’ah Additions to the Koran”, The Muslim World, 3 (1913), pp. 227241. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1913.tb00204.x.; Brunner, Rainer, “The Dispute about the Falsification of the Qur’ān between Sunnīs and Shī’īs in the 20th Century”, in Studies in Arabic and Islam: Proceedings of the 19th Congress (Leuven, 2002), pp. 437446.

32 The author received the criticism in preparation of this article.

33 Görke, Motzki, and Schoeler, “First Century Sources for the Life of Muḥammad?”

34 Shoemaker, “In Search of ʽUrwa's Sīra.”

35 Görke, Motzki, and Schoeler, “First Century Sources for the Life of Muḥammad?”, p. 41.

36 Harald Motzki, Analysing Muslim Traditions: Studies in Legal, Exegetical and Maghāzī Ḥadīth, p. 55.

37 Görke, Andreas, “Eschatology, History, and the Common Link: A Study in Methodology,” in Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, (ed.) Berg, Herbert (Leiden, 2003), pp.184186.

38 This is from Andreas Görke's feedback on the methodology part of this article.

39 See Robinson, Chase F., Islamic Historiography (Cambridge, 2004).; Rippin, Andrew, “Literary Analysis of Koran, Tafsir, and Sira: The Methodologies of John Wansbrough” in The Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam's Holy Book, (ed.) Warraq, Ibn (Amherst, N.Y., 1998), pp. 351363.; Donner, Fred McGraw, “The Qur’an in Recent Scholarship—Challenges and Desiderata” in The Qur’an in Its Historical Context, (ed.) Reynolds, Gabriel Said (Abingdon, 2008), pp. 2950.; Motzki, Harald, “The Collection of the Qur’ān. A Reconsideration of Western Views in Light of Recent Methodological Developments”, Der Islam 78, 1 (2001), pp. 134.

40 Jafri, S. Husain M., Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam (Qum, 1989), p. 28.

41 On Muḥammad al-Bāqir see Lalani, Arzina R., Early Shi’i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (London, 2004).

42 “Suppression of ʿAlī ibn abī Ṭālib's codex: Study of the traditions on the earliest copy of the Qur’ān”

43 On this see Motzki, Harald, “The Muṣannaf of ʿAbd Al-Razzāq Al-Sanʿānī as a Source of Authentic Aḥādīth of the First Century AH”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 50, no. 1 (January 1991), pp. 121.

44 Despite the fact that the sanad of the tradition gives the impression that the tradition was narrated from ʿIkrima, I have demonstrated in my article “Suppression of ʿAlī ibn abī Ṭālib's codex: Study of the traditions on the earliest copy of the Qur’ān” that this is the result of an error and in reality Ibn Sīrīn is the source of the tradition. This conclusion is based on an analysis of several other variants.

45 al-Ṣanaʿānī, Abū Bakr ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Hammām, Al-Muṣannaf, (ed.) Ḥabīb al-Raḥmān al-Aʿẓamī, vol. 5 (South Africa, 1970), p. 450.

46 ʿAbd al-Razzāq ʿan Maʿmar ʿan Ayyūb ʿan ʿIkrima qāla: Lammā būyiʿa li- [sic. ‘bi’ (correction from the editor of the book)] Abī Bakr takhallafa ʿAlī fī baytihi, fa-laqiyahu ʿUmar, fa-qāla: Takhallafta ʿan bayʿati Abī Bakr? Qāla: Innī ālaytu bi-yamīn ḥīna qubiḍa Rasūl Allāh allā artadī bi-ridā’ī illā ilā al-ṣalāt al-maktūba ḥattā ajmaʿa al-Qur’ān fa-innī khashaytu an yatafallat al-Qur’ān. Thumma kharaja fa-bāyiʿahu.

47 al-Najāshī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī, Rijāl al-Najāshī (Beirut, 2010), p. 338.

48 He was one of the students of Muḥammad Jamāluddīn al-Makkī al-Āmilī (1334–1385) also known as Shahīd al-Awwal.

49 Āghā Buzurg Ṭahrānī, Al-Dharīʿa Ilā Taṣānīf al-Shīʿa, vol. 3 (Qum and Tehran, no date), p. 124.

50 al-Qummī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṣaffār, Baṣāʾir al-Darajāt fī Faḍaʾil Āl Muḥammad, 2nd edition (Qum, 1983), p. 193.

51 Translation: No one can claim to have collected the Qur’ān — in its entirety — inwardly and outwardly, except the trustees.

52 On al-Kāfī see Gleave, Robert, “Between Ḥadīth and Fiqh: The ‘Canonical’ Imāmī Collections of Akhbār”, Islamic Law and Society, Hadith and Fiqh, 8, 3 (2001), pp. 350382.; Newman, Andrew J., The Formative Period of Twelver Shī’ism, (Richmond, 2000).

53 al-Kulaynī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb b. Isḥāq, Al-Kāfī fī ʿIlm al-Dīn, vol. 1 (Qum, 2008), p. 566.

54 Translation: No one can claim to possess the collection of the Qur’ān in its entirety, with its inward and outward [meaning], except the trustees.

55 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṣaffār al-Qummī, Baṣāʾir al-Darajāt fī Faḍāʾil Āl Muḥammad, pp. 193—194.

56 Translation: A man asked Abū Jaʿfar (peace be upon him) and Abū Jaʿfar replied: No one can say that he collected the Qur’ān in its entirety except the trustees.

57 “An attempt to establish the identity of al-Kulaynī's informant: Use of transmission patterns in contemporary Shī’ite isnād analysis” (Under review).

58 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, pp. 319–320.

59 al-Hilālī, Sulaym b. Qays, Kitāb Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī, vol. 1, 2 vols. (Qum, 1984), p. 236.

60 There is no date of death for him in the sources but he might have died around the same date as al-Ṣaffār.

61 See Andrew J. Newman, The Formative Period of Twelver Shī’ism.

62 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 313.

63 Al-Khāzāʿī was later captured and killed by Muʿāwiya b. abī Sufyān.

64 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, pp. 313–314.; Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 143.

65 Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir b. Muḥammad Taqī, Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 49 (Beirut, 1983), p. 276.

66 No date of death.

67 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī (Qum, no date), Al-Fihrist, p. 117.

68 No date of death.

69 Baghdādī, Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn Wāsiṭī, Al-Rijāl, (ed). Ḥusaynī, Muḥammad Riḍā, vol. 1 (Qum, 1985), p. 89.

70 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 403.; al-Ṭabarsī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad Taqī Nūrī, Mustadrak al-Wasā’il wa-Mustanbaṭ al-Masā’il, vol 6 (Qum, 1987), p. 320.

71 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 169.

72 Bābawayh, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b., Man Lā Yahḍurūhu al-Faqīh, 4 vols. (Qum, 1992).

73 Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Bābawayh, Al-Amālī, vol. 1 (Tehran, no date), p. 294.

74 Bābawayh, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b., Al-Khiṣāl, vol. 1 (Qum, 1983), p. 72.

75 The book contains traditions about Islamic ethics.

76 Bābawayh, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b., Maʿānī al-Akhbār, vol. 1 (Qum, 1982).

77 al-Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, Al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, vol. 1 (Qum, 1992).

78 al-Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, Tahdhīb al-Aḥkām, vol. 1, 10 vols. (Tehran, 1986).

79 al-Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, Al-Istibṣār fī-mā Ikhtalafa min al-Akhbār, 4 vols. (Tehran, 1970).

80 In the work, Fayḍ al-Kāshānī compiles traditions that already existed in the Four Books (al-Kutub al-Arbaʿa), the most important ḥadīth collections of the Shī’ite faith, and rearranges them into different chapters with his clarifications and explanations. Thus, they are not different traditions.

81 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 237.

82 Ibid.

83 Ibid.

84 Ibid.

85 Modarressi, in his biographical work, groups him with scholars who died in the period between 136 and 198. See, Modarressi, Hossein, Tradition and Survival: A Bibliographical Survey of Early Shiite Literature (Oxford, 2003).

86 Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī, Kitāb Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī, vol. 1, p. 236.

87 Harald Motzki, “The Collection of the Qur’ān: A Reconsideration of Western Views in Light of Recent Methodological Development”.

88 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṣaffār al-Qummī, Baṣāʾir al-Darajāt fī Faḍaʾil Āl Muḥammad, p. 193.

89 Translation: It has been reported by Aḥmad b. Muḥammad from al-Ḥasan b. Maḥbūb from ʿAmr b. abī al-Miqdām from Jābir, he said: I have heard from Abū Jaʿfar (a) saying:

Anyone among people, who says that he collected the Qur’ān in its entirety as God revealed it, is nothing but a great liar. Nobody has collected and memorised (or preserved) it (the Qur’ān) as God revealed it except ʿAlī b. abī Ṭālib and after him the Imāms.

90 Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb b. Isḥāq al-Kulaynī, Al-Kāfī fī ʿIlm al-Dīn, vol. 1, p. 566.

91 Translation: Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā from Aḥmad b. Muḥammad from b. Maḥbūb from ʿAmr b. abī al-Miqdām from Jābir he said I have heard Abū Jaʿfar may peace be upon him saying:

Anyone among the people who claims that he collected the Qur’ān in its entirety, as it was revealed, is nothing but a great liar. Nobody has collected and preserved it, as God Exalted sent it down, except ʿAlī b. abī Ṭālib and the Imāms, may peace be upon them, after him.

92 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 77.

93 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, pp. 79–80.; Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 25.

94 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 46.

95 Muṣṭafā b. al-Ḥusayn Tafrishī, Naqd al-Rijāl, vol. 5 (Qum, No date), p. 56.

96 An Arab subtribe.

97 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 46.

98 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 278.

99 Modarressi, Hossein, Tradition and Survival: A Bibliographical Survey of Early Shiite Literature, vol. 1 (Oxford, 2003), p. 205.

100 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 278.

101 Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol. 1, p. 205.

102 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 111.

103 Abū al-Qāsim al-Khū’ī, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt (No place, no date), vol. 14, p. 80.

104 Ibid.

105 Al-Ghaḍā’irī was a classmate of both al-Najāshī and al-Ṭūsī; they all studied with al-Ghaḍā’irī's father al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ghaḍā’irī (d. 411/1020). Al-Ghaḍā’irī then became a shaykh of al-Najāshī. However, some Shī’ite scholars such as al-Khū’ī and Āghā Buzurg Ṭahrānī have disputed the authenticity of the work. (al-Khū’ī, Abū al-Qāsim, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt, 5th edition, vol. 10 (Tehran, 1992), p. 318.; Āghā Buzurg Ṭahrānī, Al-Dharīʿa Ilā Taṣānīf al-Shīʿa, vol. 10, pp. 88–89.)

106 al-Baghdādī, Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn al-Ghaḍā’irī al-Wāsiṭī, Rijāl Ibn al-Ghaḍā’irī, 1st edition, (Qum, 2001), p. 111.

107 Muṣṭafā b. al-Ḥusayn Tafrishī, Naqd al-Rijāl, vol. 5, pp. 123–124.

108 Sayyid Fāḍil al-Ḥusaynī al-Mīlānī, “ʿUmar b. abī al-Miqdām” (Office of Āyatullāh Sayyid Fāḍil al-Ḥusaynī al-Mīlānī), accessed May 31, 2014, http://almilani.com/.

109 Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol. 1, p. 205.

110 Ibid., pp. 86–87.

111 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 127.

112 Ibid., p. 128.

113 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, Al-Fihrist, p. 45.

114 Dakake, Maria, “Jāber Joʿfi,” Encylopaedia Iranica (New York, 2007), http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/jaber-jofi.; Madelung, Wilferd, “Jābir al-Juʿfī,” (ed.) Bearman, P. et al., Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online, 2012), http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/djabir-al-djufi-SIM_8481.; Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol 1, pp. 86–8.

115 Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol 1. p. 87.

116 Al-Nawbakhtī was one of the first Shī’ite theologians to merge Shī’ite teachings with Muʿtazilī theology. Kitāb Firaq al-Shīʿa is believed to be the genuine work of al-Nawbakhtī but this view is contested. (Calder, Norman, Mojaddedi, Jawid and Rippin, Andrew, Classical Islam: A Sourcebook of Religious Literature, 2nd edition (Abingdon, 2013)).

117 The work has been translated into English under the title Shīʿa Sects (Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā al-Nawbakhtī, Shīʿa Sects, Translated by Abbas Kadhim (London, 2007).

118 Ibid.

119 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 127.

120 Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol. 1, p. 92.

121 See Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 127; Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol. 1, pp. 87–93.

122 al-Khū’ī, Abū al-Qāsim, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt (Tehran, 1976), pp. 4950.

123 Jaʿfar Ṣubḥānī, Kulliyāt fī ʿIlm al-Rijāl, pp. 313–315.

124 al-Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Tafsīr al-Qummī, ed. Jazāʾirī, Ṭayyib Mūsawī, vol. 2 (Qum, 1983), p. 451.

125 Translation: No one from this nation (umma) has collected the Qur’ān except the trustee (waṣiyyu Muḥammadin) of Muḥammad (ṣ).

126 Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṣaffār al-Qummī, Baṣāʾir al-Darajāt fī Faḍāʾil Āl Muḥammad, p. 194.

127 Translation: No one from this nation can be found who has collated the Qur’ān, except the trustees.

128 Abū al-Qāsim al-Khū’ī, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt, vol. 5 (No place, no date), p. 16.

129 There is no information about him in the rijāl works.

130 Abū al-Qāsim al-Khū’ī, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt, vol. 17 (No place, no date), pp. 319–323.

131 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl Al-Najāshī, p. 332.

132 Abū al-Qāsim al-Khū’ī, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt, vol. 17, pp. 319–323.

133 al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, First edition, vol. 9 (Beirut, 1984), pp. 405406.

134 al-Ṭusī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, ed. Iṣfahānī, Jawād Ḥayyūmī (Qum, 1994), p. 292.

135 Sayyid Muḥsin Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 10 (Beirut, no date), pp. 37–39.

136 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 114.

137 Modarressi, Tradition and Survival, vol. 1, p. 377.

138 Abū al-Qāsim al-Khū’ī, Muʿjam Rijāl al-Ḥadīth wa-Tafṣīl Ṭabaqāt al-Ruwāt, vol. 11 (No place, no date), pp. 244–245.

139 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Najāshī, Rijāl Al-Najāshī, p. 229.

140 Ibid., 74.

141 On al-Barqī see Andrew J. Newman, The Formative Period of Twelver Shī’ism,; Vilozny, Roy. “A Shi’i Life Cycle According to Al-Barqī's Kitāb al-Maḥāsin.” Arabica 54, 3 (July 2007), pp. 362396.

1 This paper is based on my PhD thesis. I am greatly indebted to Harald Motzki and Muhammad Saeed Bahmanpour for their criticism, suggestions and numerous corrections on my thesis. I have included some of their comments in the paper. I also extend my gratitude to Robert Gleave, James Piscatori, Colin Turner, Andreas Görke and the anonymous readers for their valuable suggestions and criticism, which further improved the paper. Needless to say, the author takes full responsibility for any shortcomings that may exist in the paper.

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Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
  • ISSN: 1356-1863
  • EISSN: 1474-0591
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