Six juvenile sperm whales were observed visually and acoustically in the confined waters of Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands during March 1993. General visual behaviours observed included slow travelling, head-outs, logging and side fluking but there were no observations of tail fluking within the confines of Scapa Flow. Recordings of the whales' vocalizations through hydrophones revealed a remarkably wide repertoire including clicks, rapid clicks, gunshots, chirrups, creaks, short trumpets, pips, squeals and clangs. Selected examples of these sounds were digitized and analysed as spectrograms. Clicks, rapid clicks, gunshots and clangs all showed a characteristic impulsive broadband signature. Chirrups, short trumpets and creaks were composed of rapid sequences of broadband impulses, although creaks were invariably faint and were difficult to illustrate well. Chirrups, short trumpets and clangs showed strong spectral peaks and pips were particularly unusual sounds with impulsive narrowband signatures composed of harmonically spaced peaks. Squeals exhibited prolonged, narrowband swept frequency signatures often with slight oscillation. All types of vocalization with the exception of clangs were heard from sperm whales during pure observation, minimum disturbance encounters in the field. Two attempts were made to remove the whales from Scapa Flow, the first being an enticement operation to lure the whales to open water with the use of underwater playback of sounds of socializing female sperm whales and the second a shepherding operation to drive the whales with a flotilla of vessels. The enticement operation was unsuccessful but the shepherding operation was successful, although the whales showed considerable reluctance to navigate a narrow channel to the open sea. During the shepherding operation there was a distinct change in the nature of the whales' vocalizations, with clangs predominating over other forms.