Since the late 19th century, the accidentally introduced Gastropoda Crepidula fornicata has been invading sheltered coastal waters of western Europe. The consequences of this proliferation on macrozoobenthic communities were studied in the Bay of Marennes-Oléron, France. Crepidula fornicata was found in a wide range of sediment grain sizes and depths, with however, a predilection for shallow muddy areas where abundance and biomass reached 4770 ind m−2 and 354 g DW m−2, respectively. Soft-sediment macrofaunal assemblages were compared in similar habitats, in the presence and absence of C. fornicata. In muddy and medium sand areas, abundance, biomass and species richness of macrofauna were generally greater in presence of C. fornicata, with Annelida dominating, although the differences were significant (P<0.05) only in one location out of five. The species composition was moderately different in the presence of C. fornicata. In coarse sand, the abundance of C. fornicata was low and did not affect abundance, biomass and species richness of the macrofauna. However, species composition differed where C. fornicata was absent, with a higher proportion of mobile Crustaceana. The effect of C. fornicata on benthic communities differs in relation to the habitat they colonize: in muddy sediments, the presence of C. fornicata apparently stimulates zoobenthic community diversity and abundance (mostly deposit-feeders), whereas in coarser sediments, macrofauna community is different (more suspension-feeders) from the community associated with C. fornicata.