Skip to main content Accessibility help

Molecular confirmation and description of the larval morphology of Thalassocaris lucida (Dana, 1852) (Decapoda, Caridea, Pandaloidea)

  • José María Landeira (a1), Chien-Hui Yang (a2) (a3), Tomoyuki Komai (a4), Tin-Yam Chan (a2) (a3) and Kaori Wakabayashi (a1)...


The morphology of the zoeal stages IX and XI of the shrimp Thalassocaris lucida is described and illustrated in detail from plankton specimens identified by barcoding of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (sequence similarities 99.4–99.6%). The present study confirms the larval morphology of Thalassocaris, that shows distinct features within Pandaloidea: (1) carapace broad and dorsoventrally flattened, (2) coxal endite of maxilla with only one lobe, (3) basis of third maxilliped with a distal globose lobe. On the other hand, the funnel-shaped eyes, and the development with long series of larval stages of Thalassocaris indicate affinities with some genera of Pandalidae which corroborates the results of recent phylogenetic analyses in abandoning the family status of Thalassocarididae.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Chien-Hui Yang, E-mail:


Hide All
Anger, K (2006) Contributions of larval biology to crustacean research: a review. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 49, 175205.
Borradaile, LA (1917) The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A. No. IX. On Carides from the Western Indian Ocean. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 17, 397412, Pls. 58–59.
Bracken, HD, De Grave, S and Felder, DL (2009) Phylogeny of the infraorder Caridea based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes (Crustacea: Decapoda). In Martin, JW, Crandall, KA and Felder, DL (eds), Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics (Crustacean Issues 18). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 281305.
Chace, FA Jr (1985) The caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine expedition, 1907–1910. Part 3: Families Thalassocarididae and Pandalidae. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 411, 1143.
Christoffersen, ML (1988) Phylogenetic systematics of the Eucarida (Crustacea, Malacostraca). Revista Brasiliera de Zoologia 5, 325351.
Clark, PF, Calazans, DK and Pohle, GW (1998) Accuracy and standardization of brachyuran larval descriptions. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 33, 127144.
Darriba, D, Taboada, GL, Doallo, R and Posada, D (2012) Jmodeltest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9, 772.
De Grave, S and Chan, T-Y (2010) The caridean shrimps of the family Thalassocarididae Bate, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda) from the Philippine PANGLAO 2004 expedition, with a note on the ecology of Thalassocaris crinita (Dana, 1852). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 58, 189192.
De Grave, S and Fransen, CHJM (2011) Carideorum catalogus: the recent species of the dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 85, 195589, figs 1–59.
De Grave, S, Pentcheff, ND, Ahyong, ST, Chan, T-Y, Crandall, KA, Dworschak, PC, Felder, DL, Feldmann, RM, Fransen, CHJM, Goulding, LYD, Lemaitre, R, Low, MEY, Martin, JW, Ng, PKL, Schweitzer, CE, Tan, SH, Tshudy, D and Wetzer, R (2009) A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 21, 1109.
De Grave, S, Chan, T-Y, Chu, KH, Yang, C-H and Landeira, J (2015) Phylogenetics reveals the crustacean order Amphionidacea to be larval shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea). Scientific Reports 5, 17464. doi: 10.1038/srep17464.
Folmer, O, Black, M, Hoeh, W, Lutz, R and Vrijenhoek, R (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3, 294299.
George, MJ and George, KC (1964) On the occurrence of the caridean prawn Thalassocaris lucida (Dana) in the stomach of Neothunnus macropterus (Temminck and Schlegel) from the Arabian Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 6, 171172.
González-Ortegón, E and Giménez, L (2014) Environmentally mediated phenotypic links and performance in larvae of a marine invertebrate. Marine Ecology Progress Series 502, 185195.
Gopala Menon, P and Williamson, DI (1971) Decapod Crustacea from the International Indian Ocean Expedition. The species of Thalassocaris (caridea) and their larvae. Journal of Zoology, London 165, 2751.
Hajibabaei, M, Singer, GAC, Hebert, PDN and Hickey, DA (2007) DNA barcoding: how it complements taxonomy, molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. Trends in Genetics 23, 167172.
Hayashi, K-I (2007) Prawns, shrimps and lobsters from Japan (151). Superfamily Pandaloidea, family Thalassocarididae – genus Thalassocaris. Aquabiology 29, 8489 (in Japanese).
Haynes, E (1980) Larval morphology of Pandalus tridens and a summary of the principal morphological characteristics of North Pacific pandalid shrimp larvae. Fishery Bulletin 77, 625640.
Jiang, G-C, Landeira, JM, Shih, T-W and Chan, T-Y (2016) Larval development to the ninth zoeal stage of Heterocarpus abulbus Yang, Chan and Chu, 2010 (Decapoda: Caridea: Pandalidae), a deep-water shrimp with high fishery potential. Journal of Crustacean Biology 36, 310328.
Jiang, G-C, Chan, T-Y and Shih, T-W (2017) Larval development to the first eighth zoeal stages in the deep-sea caridean shrimp Plesionika grandis Doflein, 1902 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae). ZooKeys 719, 2344.
Katoh, K and Standley, DM (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30, 772780.
Komai, T, Chan, T-Y and De Grave, S (2019) Establishment of a new shrimp family Chlorotocellidae for four genera previously assigned to Pandalidae (Decapoda, Caridea, Pandaloidea). Zoosystematics and Evolution 95(2), 391402.
Kumar, S, Stecher, G and Tamura, K (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33, 1887.
Landeira, JM, Chan, T-Y, Aguilar-Soto, N, Jiang, G-C and Yang, C-H (2014) Description of the decapodid stage of Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) (Decapoda: Caridea: Pandalidae) identified by DNA barcoding. Journal of Crustacean Biology 34, 377387.
Landeira, JM, Jiang, G-C, Chan, T-Y, Shih, T-W and González-Gordillo, JI (2015) Redescription of the early larval stages of the pandalid shrimp Chlorotocus crassicornis (Decapoda: Caridea: Pandalidae). Zootaxa 4013, 100110.
Landeira, JM, Matsuno, K, Yamaguchi, A, Hirawake, T and Kikuchi, T (2017) Abundance, development stage, and size of decapod larvae through the Bering and Chukchi Seas during summer. Polar Biology 40, 18051819.
Lavery, SD, Farhadi, A, Farahmand, H, Chan, TY, Azhdehakoshpour, A, Thakur, V and Jeffs, AG (2014) Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758). PLoS ONE 9, e97247.
Lebour, MV (1940) The larvae of the Pandalidae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 24, 239252.
Lee, HE, Hong, SY and Kim, JN (2007) Larval development of Pandalus gracilis Stimpson (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pandalidae) reared in the laboratory. Journal of Natural History 41, 28012815.
Li, X (2006) Additional pandaloid shrimps from the South China Sea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea), with description of one new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54, 361372.
Li, X and Komai, T (2003) Pandaloid shrimps from the northern South China Sea, with description of a new species of Plesionika (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 51, 257275.
Liao, Y, Ma, KY, De Grave, S, Komai, T, Chan, T-Y and Chu, KH (2019) Systematic analysis of the caridean shrimp superfamily Pandaloidea (Crustacea: Decapoda) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 134, 200210.
Marin, I and Chan, T-Y (2011) New records of the caridean family Thalassocaridae Bate, 1888 (Decapoda, Caridea). Crustaceana 84, 243249.
Matzen da Silva, J, dos Santos, A, Cunha, MR, Costa, FO, Creer, S and Carvalho, GR (2011) Multigene molecular systematics confirm species status of morphologically convergent Pagurus hermit crabs. PLoS ONE 6, e28233.
Minh, BQ, Nguyen, MAT and von Haeseler, A (2013) Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap. Molecular Biology and Evolution 305, 11881195.
Nguyen, LT, von Schmidt, HA, Haeseler, A and Minh, BQ (2015) IQ-TREE: a fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum-likelihood phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32, 268274.
Palero, F, Guerao, G, Hall, M, Chan, T-Y and Clark, P (2014) The ‘giant phyllosoma’ are larval stages of Parribacus antarcticus. Invertebrate Systematics 28, 258276.
Pascoal, A, Barros-Velázquez, J, Ortea, I, Cepeda, A, Gallardo, JM and Calo-Mata, P (2011) Molecular identification of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and the Indian white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) by PCR targeted to the 16S rRNA mtDNA. Food Chemistry 125, 14571461.
Pike, RB and Williamson, DI (1964) The larvae of some species of Pandalidae (Decapoda). Crustaceana 6, 265284.
Podeswa, Y and Pakhomov, EA (2015) Feeding ecology of pelagic decapods in the North Pacific subtropical gyre: implications for active carbon transport. Arthropoda Selecta 24, 317334.
Schubart, CD (2009) Mitochondrial DNA and decapod phylogenies: the importance of pseudogenes and primer optimization. In Martin, JW, Crandall, KA and Felder, DL (eds), Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics (Crustacean Issues 18). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 4765.
Shirley, SM, Shirley, TC and Rice, SD (1987) Latitudinal variation in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister: zoeal morphology explained by incubation temperature. Marine Biology 95, 371376.
Thatje, S and Bacardit, R (2000) Larval development of Austropandalus grayi (Cunningham, 1871) (Decapoda, Caridea, Pandalidae) from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Crustaceana 73, 609628.
Trifinopoulos, J, Nguyen, LT, von Haeseler, A and Minh, BQ (2016) W-IQ-TREE: a fast online phylogenetic tool for maximum likelihood analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 44, 232235.
Wakabayashi, K, Yang, C-H, Shy, J-Y, He, C-H and Chan, T-Y (2017) Correct identification and redescription of the larval stages and early juveniles of the slipper lobster Eduarctus martensii (Pfeffer, 1881) (Decapoda: Scyllaridae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 37, 204219.


Molecular confirmation and description of the larval morphology of Thalassocaris lucida (Dana, 1852) (Decapoda, Caridea, Pandaloidea)

  • José María Landeira (a1), Chien-Hui Yang (a2) (a3), Tomoyuki Komai (a4), Tin-Yam Chan (a2) (a3) and Kaori Wakabayashi (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed