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A cross-sectional study of the relationship of proximal smoking environments and cessation history, plans, and self-efficacy among low-income smokers

  • Rachel Widome (a1), Patrick J Hammett (a1) (a2) (a3), Anne M Joseph (a2), Diana J Burgess (a2) (a3), Janet L Thomas (a2), Jessie E Saul (a4), Barbara Clothier (a3) and Steven S Fu (a2) (a3)...



Proximal environments could facilitate smoking cessation among low-income smokers by making cessation appealing to strive for and tenable.


We sought to examine how home smoking rules and proximal environmental factors such as other household members' and peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes related to low-income smokers' past quit attempts, readiness, and self-efficacy to quit.


This analysis used data from Offering Proactive Treatment Intervention (OPT-IN) (randomized control trial of proactive tobacco cessation outreach) baseline survey, which was completed by 2,406 participants in 2011/12. We tested the associations between predictors (home smoking rules and proximal environmental factors) and outcomes (past-year quit attempts, readiness to quit, and quitting self-efficacy).


Smokers who lived in homes with more restrictive household smoking rules, and/or reported having ‘important others’ who would be supportive of their quitting, were more likely to report having made a quit attempt in the past year, had greater readiness to quit, and greater self-efficacy related to quitting.


Adjustments to proximal environments, including strengthening household smoking rules, might encourage cessation even if other household members are smokers.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Rachel Widome, E-mail:


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