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The Servian Reforms

  • Hugh Last

Extract

The origin and purpose of the centuriate organization are a subject for which the surviving evidence is too scanty to permit of any confident interpretation; and it might well be argued that, when so much has been written already about so little, it is idle to write more. Nevertheless, I have ventured to put down the remarks which follow because, unless I am wrong, there are still some relevant facts which have not been taken into account, and also because certain recent treatments of the matter, by concentrating on selected details without regard to the fundamental problem of the reason why the Servian system, was introduced, seem to me to have moved rather away from the truth than towards it. But for the conclusions suggested below at most I do not claim more than that they deserve consideration.

In dealing with so complicated a piece of history within the limits of an article it is obviously both necessary to be selective and more than usually desirable to be clear. So I have not hesitated either to pass by the less relevant detail in silence or to mention points on which opinion is now generally agreed when such points are essential to make the argument intelligible. For help in an attempt to attain these ends I owe my hearty thanks to four friends—Professors Buckland and de Zulueta, Dr. David Daube and Dr. Momigliano, and in particular also to the first three of them for their generosity in putting at my disposal their knowledge of recent literature in the field of private law. They must not, however, be assumed to share any of the views here outlined.

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References

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1 Römische Forschungen I1 (Berlin, 1864), 140 ff.

2 Römische Geschichte I, page of note 1296, ff.

3 Ueber Entstehung und Zusammensetzung der altrömischen Volksversammlungen (Berlin, 1880), 69 ff.

4 Die Könige im alten Italien: ein Fragment (Berlin. 1887).

5 Geschichte des Altertums 21 (Stuttgart, 1893), 512 f.

6 The Social Composition of the Primitive Roman Populus,’ in Political Science Quarterly 21, 1906, 498 ff.: see also The Roman Assemblies from their Origin to the End of the Republic (New York, 1909), 16 ff.

7 I veri “Fondatori di Roma”’, in Atti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia, Serie 3, Rendiconti 2, 19231924, 83 ff.

8 Storia dei Romani I (Turin, 1907), 234.

9 Die Verfassung und Verwaltung des römischen Staates 1 (Leipzig, 1881), 84. A distant approach to the same view, apparently made without knowledge of Madvig's remark, is to be found in V. Costanzi's article ‘Sul divieto di connubio fra patrizi e plebei’ in Atti del I° Congresso nazionale di Studi Romani (Rome, 1929), 2, 171 ff., at 176 f.

10 See e.g. Soltau o.c. in not e 3 above, 92 n. 2.

11 Römische Geschichte 3 (Tübingen, 1858), 17 n. 2.

12 In M. Tulli Ciceronis pro Publio Sestio oratio ad iudices, edited … by Holden, H. A. (London, 1883, etc.), 249.

13 See Blakeway, A., ‘Demaratus’ in JRS 25, 1935, 129 ff., at 133.

14 ib. 136.

15 Aspects of Social Behavior in Ancient Rome (Cambridge, Mass., 1932), 124. See also An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome I: Rome and Italy of the Republic (Baltimore, 1933) 5; and for details Scott, I. G., ‘Early Roman Traditions in the Light of Archaeology’ in Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 7, 1929, 7 ff., at 69 ff., and Ryberg, I. Scott, ‘An Archaeological Record of Rome from the Seventh to the Second Century B.C.’ (Studies and Documents 13University of Pennsylvania Press, 1940), cc. i and ii.

16 The evidence is conveniently collected and discussed by Tamborini, F., ‘La vita economica nella Roma degli ultimi re’ in Athenaeum (Pavia) 18 (N.S. 8), 1930, 299 ff. Cf. Besnier, R., ‘L'état économique de Rome aux temps des rois’ in RD, Sér. 4, Ann. 13, 1934, 405 ff. at 445 ff.

17 For a detailed discussion of this point see, e.g., Soltau o.c. in n. 3 above, 239 ff.

18 M. Tulli Ciceronis pro A. Licinio Archia poeta oratio ad iudices, edited by Reid, J. S. (Cambridge, 1877, etc.), 14 f.

19 ‘Die Befreiung durch Census’ in Festgabe Herrn Dr. Rudolph von Ihering … dargebracht von der Juristenfakultät zu Tübingen (Tübingen, 1892), 123 ff., at 136 ff.

20 ‘L'affranchissement par la vindicte’ contributed to Studi in onore di Salvatore Riccobono, 3, at p. 17 of the offprint (Palermo, 1932): at p. 74 in the reprint to be found in Lévy-Bruhl, H., Quelques problèmes du très ancien droit romain (Paris, 1934).

21 Buckland, W. W., A Manual of Roman Private Law2 (Cambridge, 1939), 43.

22 Arangio-Ruiz, V., ‘Romanisti e Latinisti’ in Studi Sassaresi, Ser. 2, 16, 1938 (Scritti di Diritto e di Economia in onore di Flaminio Mancaleoni), 15 ff.

23 Art. cit. in n. 22, p. 32 (p. 20 of the offprint).

24 About the new territorial districts into which Solomon divided his kingdom (1 Kings iv, 7 ff.), on which see, e.g., Albright, W. F., ‘The Administrative Divisions of Israel and Judah,’ in The Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society 5, 1925, 17 ff., at 25 ff., I say no more than that the evidence for their character seems to me inadequate to show whether they provide a parallel to the development here in question or not.

25 A History of Greece, part 2, ch. 31, fourth paragraph: ‘New Edition’ (London, 1907), 3, 347 f.

26 Römische Geschichte I, page of note 968.

27 Reden und Aufsätze3 (Berlin, 1912), 11.

28 The History of Rome, book 1, ch. 6: ‘New Edition’ (London, 1894, etc.), 1, 120.

29 ‘Die römischen Tribus in historischer und geographischer Beziehung,’ in Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft 3, 1836, 915 ff.

30 Die römischen Tribus in administrativer Beziehung (Altona, 1844), 2.

31 Römische Forschungen I1 (Berlin, 1864), 151 ff.

32 R. Staatsrecht 3 (Leipzig, 1887), 164 f.: Droit public 6, 1, 184 f.

33 ‘“Tribules” ed “aerarii”: una ricerca di diritto pubblico romano’, in Athenaeum (Pavia) 21 (N.S. II), 1933, 150 ff.

34 Storia di Roma 3 (Rome, 1927), 540.

35 Storia di Roma 1, 1 (Turin, 1898), 320 n. 1: Storia critica di Roma 1, 2 (Rome, 1913), 487 n. 1.

36 Die römischen Tribus … 3: R. Staatsrecht 3, 164 with n. 5; Droit public 6, 1, 184 with n. 5.

37 Roman Private Law (Cambridge, 1902), 1, 479 n. 1.

38 R. Staatsrecht 23, 402 n. 2: Droit public 4, 83 n. 2.

39 R. Staatsrecht 23, 392 ff.: Droit public 4,71 ff.

40 Praelectiones Academicae in Schola Historices Camdeniana (Oxford, 1692), 710 ff.

41 See Sherwin-White, A. N., The Roman Citizenship (Oxford, 1939), 10.

42 Livy, 1, 45, 2 ff.: Dionysius 4, 26, 2 ff.

43 See Wissowa, G., Religion und Kultus der Römer2 (Munich, 1912), 39.

44 In Atti delCongresso Nazionale di Studi Romani 3 (Rome, 1931), 91 ff.

45 ‘Ancora sull' età dell' ordinamento centuriato’, in Athenaeum (Pavia) 22 (N.S. 12), 1934, 57 ff.

46 Le origini dell' ordinamento centuriato,’ in Riv. fil. 61 (N.S. II), 1933, 289 ff.

47 Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte I2 (Berlin, 1908), 265 n. 1. (The third edition of this work, to which the reference should properly be given, is at present inaccessible to me.)

48 Livy 1, 43, 1 ff.: Dionysius 4, 16, 2 ff.

49 Gellius 6 (7), 13, 1 f.: cf. Festus p. 100 L., 113 M.

50 Among recent exponents of this view may be mentioned Beloch, K. J. (Römische Geschichte bis zum Beginn der punischen KriegeBerlin-Leipzig, 1926–291) and Jones, H. Stuart (CAH 7, 435).

51 The History of Rome, book 1, ch. 6: ‘New Edition’ (London, 1894, etc.), 1, 120.

52 De legg. 3, 44: cf. ib. 11.

53 Cicero, de re p. 2, 61.

54 See above, p. 35.

55 Livy 2, 56, 2 ff.: Dionysius 9, 41, 2 ff.

56 Soltau, o.c. in n. 3 above, 344 ff.; Delbrück, o.c. in n. 47 above, 262 f.

57 See, e.g., Fraccaro, o.c. in n. 33 above, 157 ff.

58 The History of Rome, book 2, ch. 3: ‘New Edition’ (London, 1894, etc.), 1, 396: cf. R. Staatsrecht 23, 402 ff.; Droit public 4, 83 ff.

59 O.c. in n. 33 above, 161 f.

60 For proposals of this sort see, e.g., Pais, E., Storia di Roma 5 (Rome, 1928), 199 ff., and K. J. Beloch, o.c. in n. 50 above, 266.

61 See Mommsen, , R. Staatsrecht 3, 483: Droit public 4, 175.

62 On this see AJP 58, 1937, 468 ff.

63 See above p. 45 and n. 58, and, earlier, Die römschen Tribus … 154 f. with n. 143.

64 R. Staatsrecht 3, 174 n. 9: Droit public 6, 1, 196 n. 1.

65 See, e.g., Pliny, , NH 18, 13.

66 O.c. in n. 33 above, 152 n. 3.

The Servian Reforms

  • Hugh Last

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