Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Fresh Water in Roman Law: Rights and Policy*

  • Cynthia Bannon (a1)

Abstract

Fresh water came from a variety of sources, streams and springs as well as aqueducts. Much of the Roman law on fresh water concerns its supply, regulating rights to use it with a variety of legal institutions from public and private law (e.g. ownership, servitudes, interdicts). The study of fresh water has usually followed the legal categories, segregating the public water supply from water that was private property, and consequently segregating different types of evidence. In this paper varied evidence is analysed using the ‘bundle’ approach, an analytical framework from legal scholarship on rights in the environment, in which water rights are not monolithic but are represented by component rights, including rights of access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation. Analysing component rights in fresh water reveals significant continuities in the Romans' regulation of it and the impact of this regulation. Although there was no centralized water administration in the early Empire, Romans took a systematic approach to regulating fresh water based on consistent working principles and policy priorities.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Fresh Water in Roman Law: Rights and Policy*
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Fresh Water in Roman Law: Rights and Policy*
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Fresh Water in Roman Law: Rights and Policy*
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Footnotes

Hide All
*

The author thanks Dennis Kehoe and Peter Reich for reading early drafts and the editor and referees for helpful direction.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Albanese, B. 1991: ‘L'edictum vetus «su qui flumina retanda publice redempta habent»’, Annali del Seminario Giuridico dell'Univ. di Palermo 41, 1729
Alburquerque, J. M. 2002: La Protección o defensa del uso colectivo de las cosas de dominio público: especial referencia a los interdictos de publicis locis (loca, itinere, viae, flumina, ripae), Madrid
Al-Mudayna (Association) 1991: Historia de los regadios en España (…a.c.–1931), Madrid
Arenillas, M., and Castillo, J. C. 2003: ‘Dams from the Roman era in Spain: analysis of design forms’, in Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History, Madrid 20th–24th January 2003, Madrid, 243–57
Baden, J. A. 1998: ‘A new primer for the management of common-pool resources and public goods’, in Baden, J. A. and Noonan, D. S. (eds), Managing the Commons (2nd edn), Bloomington, 5162
Bannon, C. J. 2009: Gardens and Neighbors: Private Water Rights in Roman Italy, Ann Arbor
Bannon, C. J. 2016: ‘Ancient Roman water rights and Commons Theory’, in Ashcraft, C. M. and Mayer, T. (eds), The Politics of Fresh Water: Access, Conflict and Identity, New York, 1327
Bannon, C. J. 2017: ‘Rivers, rights, and “Romanization”’, in Kehoe, D. P. and McGinn, T. A. J., Ancient Law, Ancient Society, Ann Arbor, 122–44
Beltrán Lloris, F. 2006: ‘An irrigation decree from Roman Spain: the Lex Rivi Hiberiensis’, Journal of Roman Studies 96, 147–97
Birks, P., Rodger, A., and Richardson, J. S. 1984: ‘Further aspects of the Tabula Contrebiensis’, Journal of Roman Studies 74, 4573
Boatwright, M. T. 2000: Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire, Princeton
Brennan, T. C. 2000: The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (2 vols), Oxford
Broadhead, W. 2000: ‘Migration and transformation in North Italy in the 3rd to 1st centuries BC’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 44, 145–66
Bruun, C. 1991: The Water Supply of Ancient Rome: A Study of Roman Imperial Administration, Rome
Bruun, C. 2003: ‘Medius fidius … tantam pecuniam Nicomedenses perdiderint! Roman water supply, public administration and private contractors’, in Aubert, J.-J. (ed.), Tâches publiques et entreprise privée dans le monde romaine, Geneva, 305–25
Bruun, C. 2012: ‘Roman emperors and legislation on public water use in the Roman Empire: clarifications and problems’, Water History 4, 1133
Bruun, C. 2015: ‘Water use and productivity in Roman agriculture: selling, sharing, servitudes’, in Erdkamp, et al. (eds) 2015, 132–49
Butzer, K. W., Mateu, J. F., Butzer, E. K., and Kraus, P. 1985: ‘Irrigation agrosystems in eastern Spain: Roman or Islamic origins?’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75.4, 479509
Campbell, B. 2000: The Writings of the Roman Land Surveyors, London
Campbell, B. 2012: Rivers and the Power of Ancient Rome, Chapel Hill
Cangelosi, E. 2014: Publica e Communis. Acqua, mondo romano e beni comuni, Rome
Capini, S. 1991: ‘Venafrum’, in La Romanisation du Samnium aux IIe et Ier siècles av. J.-C. Actes du Colloque organisé par le Centre Jean Bérard 4–5 Novembre 1988, Naples, 2133
Capogrossi Colognesi, L. 1966: Ricerche sulla struttura delle servitù d'acqua in diritto romano, Milan
Capogrossi Colognesi, L. 1999: ‘Spazio privato e spazio pubblico’, in Gigli, S. Quilici and Quilici, L. (eds), La Forma della città e del territorio, Rome, 1741
Capogrossi Colognesi, L. 2014: ‘La lex rivi Hiberiensis e gli schemi delle servitù d'acqua in diritto romano’, in Maganzani, L. and Buzzacchi, C. (eds), Lex Rivi Hiberiensis. Diritto e tecnica in una comunità della Spagna romana, Naples, 7591
Cole, D. H. 2000: ‘New forms of private property: property rights in environmental goods’, Bouckaert, B. and De Geest, G. (eds), Encyclopedia of Law and Economics, Volume I. The History and Methodology of Law and Economics, Cheltenham, 274314
Cole, D. H., and Ostrom, E. 2012: ‘The variety of property systems and rights in natural resources’, in Cole, D. and Ostrom, E. (eds), Property in Land and Other Resources, Cambridge, 3764
Cornell, T. J. 1995: The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c.1000–264 BC), London and New York
Costa, E. 1919: Le acque nel diritto romano, Bologna
Coste, J., and Schutzmann-Bolzon, P. 1970: ‘Roma (agro romano). Il cippo arcaico della tenuta Sbardella’, Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità ser. VIII , 24, 364–71
Crawford, M. H. (ed.) 1996a: Roman Statutes (2 vols), London
Crawford, M. H. 1996b: ‘Lex Coloniae Genitivae’, in Crawford 1996a, 393–454
Crook, J. A. 1996a: ‘Lex Sulpicia’, in Crawford 1996a, 727–8
Crook, J. A. 1996b: ‘Leges de aquis’, in Crawford 1996a, 729–30
Crook, J. A. 1986: ‘ Lex “rivalicia” (FIRA I no. 5)’, Athenaeum 74 (N.S. 64), 4553
Cursi, M. F. 2007: ‘ L’edictum Augusti de aquaeductu Venafrano e l'amministrazione delle acque pubbliche. Un esempio di regolamentazione di rapporti privati e pubblici’, in Samnium 70, 121–32
Daube, D. 1973: ‘Das Selbstverständliche in der Rechtsgeschichte’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtgeschichte 90.1, 113 (translated as ‘The self-understood in legal history’, Jur. Rev. 18, 126–34. Reprinted in The Green Bag 2, 413–19 and Collected Studies 2, 1277–85)
De Kleijn, G. 2001: The Water Supply of Ancient Rome: City Area, Water, and Population, Amsterdam
De Marco, N. 2004: I loci publici dal I al III secolo. Le identificazioni dottrinali, il ruolo dell'usus, gli strumenti di tutela, Naples
Dietz, T., Dolšak, N., Ostrom, E., and Stern, P. C. (eds) 2002: ‘The drama of the Commons’, in Ostrom, E. et al. (eds), The Drama of the Commons, Washington, 335
Di Porto, A. 1994: ‘Interdetti popolari e tutela delle «res in usu publico»’, in Diritto e processo nella esperienza romana: atti del seminario torinese (45 dicembre 1991) in memoria di Giuseppe Provera, Naples, 481520
Eck, W. 1987: ‘Die Wasserversorgung im römischen Reich: Sozio-politische Bedingungen, Recht und Administration’, in Garbrecht, G. (ed.), Geschichte der Wasserversorgung. Vol. 2 Die Wasserversorgung antiker Städte, Pergamon, Mainz am Rhein, 49100
Eck, W. 1995: Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit, Basel
Erdkamp, P., Verboven, K., and Zuiderhoek, A. (eds) 2015: Ownership and Exploitation of Land and Natural Resources in the Roman World, Oxford
Evans, H. B. 1994: Water Distribution in Ancient Rome: the Evidence of Frontinus, Ann Arbor
Fiorentini, M. 2003: Fiumi e mari nell'esperienza giuridica romana, Milan
Franciosi, G. 1997: ‘Regime delle acque e paesaggio in età repubblicana’, in Coen, A. and Gigli, S. Quilici (eds), Uomo, acqua e paesaggio, Rome, 1119
Geißler, K. 1998: Die öffentliche Wasserversorgung im römischen Recht, Berlin
Grosso, G. 1931: ‘Appunti sulle derivazioni dai fiumi pubblici nel diritto romano (Aproposito di uno studio di Emilio Albertario)’, Atti Reale accademia delle scienze di Torino. Classi de scienze morali, storiche e filologiche 66, 369–91
Grosso, G. 1932: ‘Sulla servitù di aquae haustus’, Bulletino dell'Istituto di Diritto Romano 40, 401–36
Grosso, G. 1969: Le servitù prediali nel diritto romano, Turin
Gualandi, G. 2012: Legislazione imperiale e giurisprudenza, Bologna
Hermon, E. (ed.) 2008: Vers une gestion intégrée de l'eau dans l'Empire romain, Rome
Hodge, A. T. 1991: Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply, London
Hölkeskamp, K. J. 2010: Reconstructing the Roman Republic: An Ancient Political Culture and Modern Research, rev. edn, trans. Heitmann-Gordon, H., Princeton
Honoré, A. M. 1961: ‘Ownership’, in Guest, A. G. (ed.), Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence, Oxford, 370–5
Horden, P., and Purcell, N. 2000: The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History, Oxford
Jaillette, P., and Reduzzi Merola, F. 2008: ‘L'eau à usage agricole dans la législation romaine de l’époque tardive: du Code Théodosien au Code Justinien’, in Hermon 2008, 229–41
Jakab, E. 2015: ‘Property rights in ancient Rome’, in Erdkamp, et al. 2015, 107–31
Kaser, M. 1971: Das römische Privatrecht, 2 vols (2nd edn), Munich
Kaser, M., and Hackl, K. 1997: Das römische Zivilprozessrecht (2nd edn), Munich
Kehoe, D. P. 2007: Law and the Rural Economy in the Roman Empire, Ann Arbor
Kehoe, D. P. 2008. ‘Economics and the law of water rights in the Roman Empire’, in Hermon 2008, 243–51
König, A. 2007: ‘Knowledge and power in Frontinus' On Aqueducts ’, in König, J. and Whitmarsh, T. (eds), Ordering Knowledge in the Roman Empire, Cambridge, 177205
Levy, E., and Rebel, E. 1929–35: Index Interpolationum quae in Iustiniani Digestis Inesse Dicuntur, Weimar
Maganzani, L. 2004: ‘L'approvvigionamento idrico degli edifici urbani nei testi della giurisprudenza classica: contributi giuridici alle ricerche sugli acquedotti di Roma antica’, in Gallina, M. A. (ed.), Acque per l'utilitas, per la salubritas, per l'amoenitas, Milan, 185220
Maganzani, L. 2012: ‘Lex rivi Hiberiensis’, in Purpura, G. (ed.), Revisione ed integrazione dei Fontes Iuris romani Anteiustiniani (FIRA), studi preparatori, vol. 1, Leges, Turin, 171–85
Marrone, M. 1971: ‘Considerazioni sui “ruta (et) caesa”’, in Falcone, G. (ed.), Studi in onore di Edoardo Volterra, 6 vols, Milan, 1.213–23
Mateo, A. 1996: ‘Sobre la supuesta Lex Sulpicia rivalicia ’, Studia et Documenta Historiae et Iuris 62, 287308
McCay, B. 2002: ‘Emergence of Institutions for the Commons: contexts, situations, and events’, in Ostrom, E. et al. (eds), The Drama of the Commons, Washington, D.C., 361402
Meincke, J. P. 1971: ‘Superficies solo cedit’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte Romanische Abteilung 88, 136–83
Mitchell, S. 1993: Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor, 2 vols, Oxford
Mommsen, T. 1881: ‘Inschrift aus Caiatia’, Hermes 16, 495–8
Mommsen, T. 1885: ‘Die römischen Anfänge von Kauf und Miethe’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte Romanische Abteilung 19, 260–74
Mommsen, T. 1887–88: Römisches Staatsrecht (3rd edn), Leipzig
Morley, N. 1996: Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy 200 B.C.–A.D. 200, Cambridge
Nörr, D. 2008: ‘Prozessuales (und mehr) in der lex rivi Hiberiensis ’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte Romanische Abteilung 125, 108–88
Olson, M. 1998: ‘Group size and group behavior’, in Baden, J. A. and Noonan, D. S. (eds), Managing the Commons (2nd edn), Bloomington, 3950
Orestano, R. 1935: ‘Concessione personale e concessione reale dello ius aquae ducendae ex castello (contributo all'esegesi del fr. I. 38–43 D. 43.20 di Ulpiano)’, Bulletino dell'Istituto di Diritto Romano 43, 297313
Ostrom, E. 1991: Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge
Pagano, M. 1996: ‘Note su alcuni acquedotti romani in Campania’, in De Haan, N. and Jansen, G. C. M. (eds), Cura Aquarum in Campania, Leiden, 101–8
Peachin, M. 2004: Frontinus and the Curae of the Curator Aquarum , Stuttgart
Purcell, N. 1996: ‘Rome and the management of water: environment, culture and power’, in Shipley, G. and Salmon, J. (eds), Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity. Environment and Culture, London, 180212
Richardson, J. S. 1983: ‘The Tabula Contrebiensis: Roman law in Spain in the early first century B.C.: I’, Journal of Roman Studies 73, 3341
Rinne, K. W. 1999: ‘Aquae Urbis Romae: the Waters of the City of Rome’ http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/waters/first.html
Rodgers, R. H. (ed.) 2004: Frontinus De aquaeductu urbis Romae , Cambridge
Šašel, J. 1973: ‘Trajan's canal at the Iron Gate’, Journal of Roman Studies 63, 80–5
Shaw, B. D. 1982: ‘Lamasba: an ancient irrigation community’, Antiquités Africaines 18, 61103
Shaw, B. D. 1984: ‘Water and society in the ancient Maghrib: technology, property and development’, Antiquités Africaines 20, 121–73
Sherwin White, A. N. 1985: The Letters of Pliny: a Historical and Social Commentary, Oxford
Tarpin, M. 2002: Vici et Pagi dans l'occident romain, Rome
Thomas, Y. 2002: ‘La valeur des choses: le droit romain hors la religion’, Annales (HSS) 57 (6), 1431–62
Thomas, R., and Wilson, A. 1994: ‘Water supply for Roman farms in Latium and South Etruria’, Papers of the British School at Rome 62, 139–96
Walsh, P. G. 1994: Livy Book XXXIX, Warminster
Watson, A. 1975: Rome of the XII Tables, Princeton
Wikander, O. 2000a: ‘The water–mill’, in Wikander, O. (ed.), Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Leiden/Boston/Köln, 371400
Wikander, O. 2000b: ‘Industrial applications of water-power’, in Wikander, O. (ed.), Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Leiden/Boston/Köln, 401–10
Wilson, A. S. 1999: ‘Deliveries extra urbem: aqueducts and the countryside’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 12, 314–31
Zoz, M. G. 1999: Riflessioni in tema di res publicae , Turin

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed