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Quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning using head and neck phantom

  • Zahra (a1), Jalil ur Rehman (a1) (a2), H M Noor ul Huda Khan Asghar (a1), Nisar Ahmad (a1), Zaheer Abbas Gilani (a1), Gulfam Nasar (a3) and Malik M Akhter (a4)...



The purpose of this study is the verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) head neck treatment planning with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) dosimeters using imaging and radiation oncology core (IROC) Houston head & neck (H&N) phantom.


The image of the H&N phantom was obtained by computed tomography scan which was then transferred to Pinnacle@3 treatment planning system (TPS) for treatment planning. The contouring of the target volumes and critical organ were done manually and dose constraints were set for each organ according to IROC prescription. The plan was optimised by adoptive convolution algorithm to meet the IROC criteria and collapse cone convolution algorithm calculated the delivered doses for treatment. Varian Clinac 2110 was used to deliver the treatment plan to the phantom, the process of irradiation and measurement were repeated three times for reproducibility and reliability. The treatment plan was verified by measuring the doses from thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic external beam therapy 2 films. The agreement between the planned and delivered doses were checked by calculating the percentage dose differences, analysing their isodose line profiles and 2D gamma maps.


The average percent dose difference of 1·8% was obtained between computed doses by TPS and measured doses from TLDs, however these differences were found to be higher for organ at risk. The film dose profile was well in agreement with the planned dose distribution with distance to agreement of 1·5 mm. The gamma analysis of the computed and recorded doses passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm with passing percentages of >96%, which shows successful authentication of delivered doses for IMRT.


IMRT pre-treatment validation can be done with IROC anthropomorphic phantoms, which is essential for the delivery of modulated radiotherapies. It was concluded that films and TLDs can be used as quality assurance tools for IMRT.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Jalil ur Rehman, Iqbal Hall, Department of Physics, FABS, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan. E-mail:


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Cite this article: Zahra, Rehman J, Noor ul Huda Khan Asghar HM, Ahmad N, Gilani ZA, Nasar G, Akhter MM. (2019) Quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning using head and neck phantom. Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice18: 239–245. doi: 10.1017/S1460396918000729



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