Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Action Research Using a Chinese Career Model Based on the Wisdom of Classic of Changes and its Applications

  • Shu-Hui Liu (a1), Chih-Hung Wang (a1), Chi-Ping Deng (a2), Foo Bee Keh (a2) (a3), Yi-Jen Lu (a4) and Ya-Chi Tsai (a5)...

Abstract

To challenge the Taiwan Ministry of Education's (TMOE) dominant enforcement of a person-environment fit model, the Chinese Career Research Center incorporated yin-yang alternation principles from the Classic of Changes (I Ching, Yi Jing or 易經) to develop the model of career development touching the sky yet grounded (TSG) and corresponding practice guidelines, a career website (CCN), and four career service projects. Using Lewin's (1946) cyclical-spiral process of action research, CCN and TSG service projects were promoted to complement the TMOE's fit model, and feedback was utilised to revise our TSG model and its applications. Yin-yang alternation principles and the four stages of chien (the creative) from the Classic of Changes were applied to develop social action strategies. Social change was indicated by counsellors’ and students’ changes in their career views, as well as the TMOE's direct financial support for TSG service projects. This progress is encouraging for whoever is interested in developing culture-inclusive indigenous psychology with practical outcomes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Action Research Using a Chinese Career Model Based on the Wisdom of Classic of Changes and its Applications
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Action Research Using a Chinese Career Model Based on the Wisdom of Classic of Changes and its Applications
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Action Research Using a Chinese Career Model Based on the Wisdom of Classic of Changes and its Applications
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Shu-Hui Liu, 1 Jin-De Road, Changhua City, Changhua County, 50058 Taiwan. Email: gushliu@cc.ncue.edu.tw

References

Hide All
Adams, M. (2006). Towards an existential phenomenological model of life span human development. Existential Analysis, 17 (2), 261280.
Atsumi, T. (2007). Aviation with fraternal twin wings over the Asian context: Using nomothetic epistemic and narrative design paradigms in social psychology. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 3240.
Bardi, A., Guerra, V.M., & Ramdeny, G.S.D. (2009). Openness and ambiguity intolerance: Their differential relations to well-being in the context of an academic life transition. Personality and Individual Differences, 47 (3), 219223. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.03.003
Bredemeier, K., & Berenbaum, H. (2008). Intolerance of uncertainty and perceived threat. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46 (1), 2838. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2007.09.006
Bright, J.E.H., & Pryor, R.G.L. (2005). The chaos theory of careers: A users guide. Career Development Quarterly, 53, 291305.
Bright, J.E.H., & Pryor, R.G.L. (2007). Chaotic careers assessment: How constructivist and psychometric techniques can be integrated into work and life decision making. Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 23 (2), 3445.
Bussolari, C.J., & Goodell, J.A. (2009). Chaos theory as a model for life transitions counseling: Nonlinear dynamics and life's changes. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 98107.
Chen, C. (2002). Introduction to ‘Yi Zhangju’. Jinan: Chi-lu.
Chen, Y., Liu, S., Deng, C., Yang, Y., & Lee, H. (2013). Rational and intuitive CCN Vocational Card Sort: Practical applications with career information and guidance cyber system. Taiwan Counseling Quarterly, 5 (2), 2850.
Cheng, C. (2009). Paradigm of change (Yi) in classical Chinese philosophy: Part I. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 36 (4), 516530.
Forrier, A., Sels, L., & Stynen, D. (2009). Career mobility at the intersection between agent and structure: A conceptual model. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 82 (4), 739759.
Fu, L. (1981). Interpretations of ‘Zhou Yi’. Taipei: Commercial.
Fu, P. (2011). Be content with what one is: Fu, P. on ‘Classic of Changes’. Taipei: Commonwealth.
Gelatt, H.B. (1989). Positive uncertainty: A new decision-making framework for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 252256.
Gelatt, H.B. (1991a). Creative decision making using positive uncertainty. Los Altos, CA: Crisp.
Gelatt, H.B. (1991b). Positive uncertainty: A paradoxical philosophy of counseling whose time has come. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED347486)
Gelatt, H.B. (1992). A new vision for counseling. Counseling and Human Development, 25 (1), 110.
Gelatt, H.B. (1995). Chaos and compassion. Counseling and Values, 39 (2), 108116.
Gelatt, H.B., & Gelatt, C. (2003). The power of positive uncertainty: Making creative career decisions. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED 480 506)
Harrison, R. (2006). From landlines to cell phones: negotiating identity positions in new career contexts. Journal of Employment Counseling, 43, 1830.
Hsiao, C. (2006). Constructing of and pursuing happiness in career-life course (Unpublished master's thesis). National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan.
Huang, C. (2003). Interpretations of ‘One Yin and One Yang are called Tao’. Legein Monthly, 29 (3), 1719.
Huang, C. (2007). New translation of ‘the interpretation of Chien-Kun’. Taipei: Sanmin.
Hubbard, M., McCloy, R., Campbell, J., Nottingham, J., Lewis, P., Rivkin, D., & Levine, J. (2000). Revision of O*NET data collection instruments. Raleigh, NC: National Center for O*NET Development.
Hubbard, M., McCloy, R., Campbell, J., Nottingham, J., Lewis, P., Rivkin, D., & Levine, J. (2000). Revision of O*NET data collection instruments. Raleigh, NC: The National Center for O*NET Development. Retrieved from http://www.onetcenter.org/dl_files/Data_appnd.pdf
Hwang, K. (2005). A philosophical reflection on the epistemology and methodology of indigenous psychologies. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 8 (1), 517. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2005.00153.x
Hwang, K.K. (2012). Foundations of Chinese psychology: Confucian social relations. New York: Springer.
Hwang, K.K. (2013a). Linking science to culture: Challenge to psychologists. Social Epistemology, 27 (1), 105122.
Hwang, K.K. (2013b). The construction of culture-inclusive theories by multiple philosophical paradigms. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (7), 4658.
Kao, H., & Liu, S. (2012). Construction and analysis of the Inventory of Career Uncertainty for Senior High School Students. Global Mental Health E-Journal, 3 (1), 127.
Kotamraju, P., & Steuernagel, B. (2012). Crosswalk validation project: Final report. Louisville, KY: Research Center for Career and Technical Education.
Krumboltz, J.D. (2009). The happenstance learning theory. Journal of Career Assessment, 17, 135154.
Lee, Y. (2010). ‘Cocoon-breaking’: The existence of passion. (Unpublished master's thesis). National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan.
Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2, 3446.
Liu, J.H. (2014). What Confucian philosophy means for Chinese and Asian psychology today: Indigenous roots for a psychology of social change. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 8 (2), 3542.
Liu, J.H., Ng, S.H., Gastardo-Conaco, M.C., & Wong, D.S.W. (2008). Action research: A missing component in the emergence of social and cross-cultural psychology as a fully inter-connected global enterprise. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2/3, 11621181. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00100.x
Liu, S. (1999). Career view of ordinary persons: College students in Taiwan as an example. In Chinese Guidance Association (Ed.), Trend of guidance (pp. 573602). Taipei: Wunan.
Liu, S. (2005). A holistic career development model. Presented in the proceedings of holistic guidance and counseling training conference. Changhua, Taiwan: Department of Guidance and Counseling, National Changhua University of Education.
Liu, S., Chen, Y., Lu, L., Lu, Y., & Ching, S., (2014). Existential phenomenological career guidance: Teaching design and teaching materials for Malaysia high school. Guidance Quarterly.
Liu, S., & Chu, H. (1999). The relationship among decision-making style, coping with uncertainty, and career satisfaction in college students. Proceedings of the National Science Council, 9(3), 448–473.
Liu, S., Deng, C., & Wang, C. (2011, July). Life-and-culture-centered career counseling. Paper presented at the Third Forum of the Cross-Strait Four Regions of Higher Education Psychological Counselling and Consultation, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau.
Liu, S., & Wang, C. (2014). The career model touching-the-sky yet grounded: The theoretical base of Chinese Career Net. Taiwan Counseling Quarterly, 6 (1), 7687.
Liu, S., & Wang, C., Chen, Y., Deng, C., Yang, Y., Lin, M., Su, F., & Lu, Y. (2013, June). CCN Career Unfording Style Inventory: Construction and application. Paper presented at the Fifth Forum of the Cross-Strait Four Regions of Higher Education Psychological Counselling and Consultation, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai.
Liu, S., Wang, C., Deng, C., Wang, S., Li, H., & Huang, J. (2011, February). The establishment and application of a career information and assistance cyber system with rationality and intuition: Chinese Career Net as an example. Paper presented at the Congress of Psychotherapy and Mental Health in Taiwan, Shin Chien University, Taipei.
Liu, Y. (2005). Introduction to ‘Zhou-Yi Interpretation’. Jinan: Chi-lu.
Lu, Y., Wang, S., Liu, S., Chang, Y., Wu, P., & Chen, J. (2013). CCN Interest Inventory: An online system of administration and interpretation within career information and guidance cyber system. Taiwan Counseling Quarterly, 5, 116. Retrieved from http://tcq.heart.net.tw/article/TCQ5-1-1.pdf
Mendes, P., & Moslehuddin, B. (2006). From dependence to interdependence: towards better outcomes for young people leaving state care. Child Abuse Review, 15 (2), 110126. doi:10.1002/car.932
Miller, M.J. (1995). A case for uncertainty in career counseling. Counseling and Values, 39, 162168.
Mitchell, K.E., Levin, A.S., & Krumboltz, J.D. (1999). Planned happenstance: Constructing unexpected career opportunities. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 115124.
Nan, H. (1991a). Lectures on ‘Great Appendix’ (vol. 1). Taipei: Old Culture.
Nan, H. (1991b). Lectures on ‘Great Appendix’ (vol. 2). Taipei: Old Culture.
National Center for O*NET Development, (2006). New and emerging (N&E) occupations methodology development report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.
Peng, H., Hung, J., Lin, C., & Liu, S. (2013). Concept research of career resilience: The career narrative in the secondary data analysis. Taiwan Counseling Quarterly, 5 (1), 1743.
Peng, H., Hung, J., & Liu, S. (2013, August). A phenomenological inquiry on career resilience experience. Paper presented at the Eighth Chinese Psychologist Conference, Beijing Normal University, Beijing.
Peterson, et al. (2001). Understanding work using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET): Implications for practice and research. Personnel Psychology, 54, 451492. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00100.x
Peterson, N.G., Mumford, M.D., Borman, W.C., Jeanneret, P.R., & Fleishman, E.A. (Eds.). (1999). An occupational information system for the 21st century: The development of O*NET. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Peterson, N.G., Mumford, M.D., Borman, W.C., Jeanneret, P.R., Fleishman, E.A., Levin, K.Y., . . . Dye, D.M. (2001). Understanding work using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Implication for practice and research. Personnel Psychology, 54, 451492. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00100.x
Pryor, R.G.L., Aniundson, N.E., & Bright, J.E.H. (2008). Probabilities and possibilities: The strategic counseling implications of the chaos theory of careers. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 309318.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2003a). The chaos theory of career. Australian Journal of Career Development, 12 (3), 1220.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2003b). Order and chaos: A twenty-first century formulation of careers. Australian Journal of Psychology, 55 (2), 121128.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2004). ‘I had seen order and chaos but had thought they were different’: Challenges of the chaos theory for career development. Australian Journal of Career Development, 13 (3), 1822.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2005). Chaos in practice: Techniques for career counsellors. Australian Journal of Career Development, 14 (1), 1829.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2006). Counseling chaos: Techniques for counselors. Journal of Employment Counseling, 43 (1), 217.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2007). Applying chaos theory to careers: Attraction and attractors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71, 375400.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2008). Archetypal narratives in career counselling: A chaos theory application. International Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance, 8, 7182.
Pryor, R.G.L., & Bright, J.E.H. (2009). Game as a career metaphor: A chaos theory career counseling application. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 37 (1), 3950.
Pryor, R.G.L. (2007). Assessing complexity: Integrating being and becoming. Journal of Employment Counseling, 44, 126134.
Reindal, S.M. (1999). Independence, dependence, interdependence: Some reflections on the subject and personal autonomy. Disability & Society, 14 (3), 353367.
Rounds, J., Armstrong, P., Liao, H., Lewis, P., & Rivkin, D. (2008). Second generation occupational interest profiles for the O*NET system: Summary. Raleigh, NC: The National Center for O*NET Development. Retrieved from http://www.onetcenter.org/dl_files/SecondOIP_Summary.pdf
Rounds, J., Armstrong, P., Liao, H., Rivkin, D., & Lewis, P. (2008). second generation occupational value profiles for the O*NET system: Summary. Raleigh, NC: The National Center for O*NET Development. Retrieved from http://www.onetcenter.org/dl_files/SecondOIP_Summary.pdf
Samuels, G.M., & Pryce, J.M. (2008). ‘What doesn't kill you makes you stronger’: Survivalist self-reliance as resilience and risk among young adults aging out of foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 11981210. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.03.005
Spokane, A.R., Meir, E.I., & Catalano, M. (2000). Person–environment congruence and Holland's theory: A review and reconsideration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57 (2), 137187. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2000.1771
Stoltz, K.B., Wolff, L.A., Monroe, A.E., Mazahreh, L.G., & Farris, H.R. (2013). Adaptability in the Work Life Task: Lifestyle, stress coping, and protean/boundaryless career attitudes. Journal of Individual Psychology, 69 (1), 6683.
Tinsley, H.E.A. (2000). The congruence myth: An analysis of the efficacy of the person-environment fit model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 147179.
Tracey, T.J.G., Darcy, M., & Kovalski, T.M. (2000). A closer look at person–environment fit. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56 (2), 216224. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1999.1733
Trevor-Roberts, E. (2006). Are you sure? The role of uncertainty in career. Journal of Employment Counseling, 43 (3), 98116.
Vaughan, K., & Roberts, J. (2007). Developing a ‘productive’ account of young people's transition perspectives. Journal of Education and Work, 20 (2), 91105. doi:10.1080/13639080701314621
Wang, S., Shiah-hou, H., Wu, C. & Liu, C. (2014). Information system innovation as a social action: The case of career and vocational helping systems. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 8 (2), 7182.
Wijers, G., & Meijers, F. (1996). Career guidance in the knowledge society. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 24 (2), 185198.

Keywords

Action Research Using a Chinese Career Model Based on the Wisdom of Classic of Changes and its Applications

  • Shu-Hui Liu (a1), Chih-Hung Wang (a1), Chi-Ping Deng (a2), Foo Bee Keh (a2) (a3), Yi-Jen Lu (a4) and Ya-Chi Tsai (a5)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed