Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Fat from dairy foods and ‘meat’ consumed within recommended levels is associated with favourable serum cholesterol levels in institutionalised older adults

  • Yusi Liu (a1), Shirley Poon (a1), Ego Seeman (a1) (a2), David L. Hare (a3), Minh Bui (a4) and Sandra Iuliano (a1)...

Abstract

CVD is common in older adults. Consumption of ‘meat’ (beef, pork, lamb, game, poultry, seafood, eggs) and dairy foods (milk, cheese, yoghurt) is encouraged in older adults as these foods provide protein and nutrients such as essential fatty acids, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamins A, D and B12 required for healthy ageing. However, these foods also contain saturated fats considered detrimental to cardiovascular health. To determine the effect of their consumption on CVD risk we assessed associations between fat intake from ‘meat’ and dairy foods and serum cholesterol levels in 226 aged-care residents (mean age 85·5 years, 70 % female). Dietary intake was determined over 2 d using visual estimation of plate waste. Fat content of foods was determined using nutrition analysis software (Xyris, Australia). Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were measured, and the TC:HDL-cholesterol ratio calculated. Associations were determined using random-effect models adjusted for CVD risk factors using STATA/IC 13.0. Total fat and saturated fat from ‘meat’ and dairy foods were associated with higher serum HDL-cholesterol levels, and dairy fat intake and number of servings were associated with a lower TC:HDL-cholesterol ratio. Every 10 g higher intake of fat and saturated fat from dairy products, and each additional serving was associated with a −0·375 (95 % CI −0·574, −0·175; P = 0·0002), a −0·525 (95 % CI −0·834, −0·213; P = 0·001) and a −0·245 (95 % CI −0·458, −0·033; P = 0·024) lower TC:HDL-cholesterol ratio, respectively. Provision of dairy foods and ‘meat’ in recommended amounts to institutionalised older adults potentially improves intakes of key nutrients with limited detriment to cardiovascular health.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Fat from dairy foods and ‘meat’ consumed within recommended levels is associated with favourable serum cholesterol levels in institutionalised older adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Fat from dairy foods and ‘meat’ consumed within recommended levels is associated with favourable serum cholesterol levels in institutionalised older adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Fat from dairy foods and ‘meat’ consumed within recommended levels is associated with favourable serum cholesterol levels in institutionalised older adults
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Sandra Iuliano, fax +61 3 9496 3365, email sandraib@unimelb.edu.au

References

Hide All
1.World Health Organization (2016) Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). https://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/ (accessed March 2019).
2.Australian Government, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014) Health care expenditure on cardiovascular disease 2008–09. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/heart-stroke-vascular-disease/health-care-expenditure-on-cardiovascular-diseases/contents/table-of-contents (accessed February 2019).
3.Patel, SA, Winkel, M, Ali, MK, et al. (2015) Cardiovascular mortality associated with 5 leading risk factors: national and state preventable fractions estimated from survey data. Ann Intern Med 163, 245253.
4.Iuliano, S, Olden, A & Woods, J (2013) Meeting the nutritional needs of elderly residents in aged-care: are we doing enough? J Nutr Health Aging 17, 503508.
5.Iuliano, S, Poon, S, Wang, X, et al. (2017) Dairy food supplementation may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly. Br J Nutr 117, 142147.
6.Woods, J, Walker, K, Iuliano-Burns, S, et al. (2009) Malnutrition on the menu: nutritional status of institutionalised elderly Australians in low-level care. J Nutr Health Aging 13, 693698.
7.Hegsted, DM, McGandy, RB, Myers, ML, et al. (1965) Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 17, 281295.
8.Michas, G, Micha, R & Zampelas, A (2014) Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: putting together the pieces of a complicated puzzle. Atherosclerosis 234, 320328.
9.Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing (2015) Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au (accessed February 2019).
10.Howe, P, Meyer, B, Record, S, et al. (2006) Dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: contribution of meat sources. Nutrition 22, 4753.
11.Zulli, A, Lau, E, Wijaya, BP, et al. (2009) High dietary taurine reduces apoptosis and atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery: association with reduced CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and total plasma homocysteine but not lipidemia. Hypertension 53, 10171022.
12.Christensen (2009) Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev 10, 475486.
13.Pereira, DIA & Gibson, GR (2002) Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 37, 259281.
14.Huth, PJ & Park, KM (2012) Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence. Adv Nutr 3, 266285.
15.Harsha, DW, Lin, PH, Obarzanek, E, et al. (1999) Dietary approaches to stop hypertension: a summary of study results. DASH Collaborative Research Group. J Am Diet Assoc 99, S35S39.
16.Siervo, M, Lara, J, Chowdhury, S, et al. (2015) Effects of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 113, 115.
17.Department of Human Services (Victoria) (2009) Nutrition Standards for Menu Items in Victorian Hospitals and Residential Aged Care Facilities. http://www.health.vic.gov.au/patientfood/nutrition_standards.pdf (accessed February 2019).
18.Sherwin, A, Nowson, CA, McPhee, J, et al. (1988) Nutrient intake at meals in residential care facilities at the aged: validated visual estimation of plate waste. Aust J Nutr Diet 55, 188193.
19.Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2015) Nutrient Tables for Use in Australia. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/ausnut/foodnutrient/Pages/default.aspx (accessed March 2019).
20.Auyeung, TW, Lee, JS, Kwok, T, et al. (2009) Estimation of stature by measuring fibula and ulna bone length in 2443 older adults. J Nutr Health Aging 13, 931936.
21.Gauld, LM, Kappers, J, Carlin, JB, et al. (2004) Height prediction from ulna length. Dev Med Child Neurol 46, 475480.
22.Mitchell, CO & Lipschitz, DA (1982) Arm length measurement as an alternative to height in nutritional assessment of the elderly. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 6, 226229.
23.Mensink, RP, Zock, PL, Kester, AD, et al. (2003) Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 11461155.
24.Prospective Studies, Collaboration, Lewington, S, Whitlock, G, et al. (2007) Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths. Lancet 370, 18291839.
25.McTaggart, F & Jones, P (2008) Effects of statins on high-density lipoproteins: a potential contribution to cardiovascular benefit. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 22, 321338.
26.Thorning, TK, Raziani, F, Bendsen, NT, et al. (2015) Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 573581.
27.Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, H, Elmadfa, I, Djazayery, A, et al. (2010) The effects of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on lipid profile in women. Br J Nutr 103, 17781783.
28.Kiessling, G, Schneider, J & Jahreis, G (2002) Long-term consumption of fermented dairy products over 6 months increases HDL cholesterol. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 843849.
29.Ataie-Jafari, A, Larijani, B, Alavi Majd, H, et al. (2009) Cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Annals Nutr Metab 54, 2227.
30.Ejtahed, HS, Mohtadi-Nia, J, Homayouni-Rad, A, et al. (2011) Effect of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Dairy Sci 94, 32883294.
31.Lorenzen, J & Astrup, A (2011) Dairy calcium intake modifies responsiveness of fat metabolism and blood lipids to a high-fat diet. Br J Nutr 105, 18231831.
32.Lorenzen, JK, Jensen, SK & Astrup, A (2014) Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study. Br J Nutr 111, 14121420.
33.Soerensen, KV, Thorning, TK, Astrup, A, et al. (2014) Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 99, 984991.
34.Hall, WL, Millward, DJ, Long, SJ, et al. (2003) Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 89, 239248.
35.Pal, S, Ellis, V & Dhaliwal, S (2010) Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr 104, 716723.
36.Mansson, HL (2008) Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res 52, 10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1821.
37.Lordan, R, Tsoupras, A, Mitra, B, et al. (2018) Dairy fats and cardiovascular disease: do we really need to be concerned? Foods 7, 29.
38.Maki, KC, Van Elswyk, ME, Alexander, DD, et al. (2012) A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compare the lipid effects of beef versus poultry and/or fish consumption. J Clin Lipidol 6, 352361.
39.Hunninghake, DB, Maki, KC, Kwiterovich, PO, et al. (2000) Incorporation of lean red meat into a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I Diet: a long-term, randomized clinical trial in free-living persons with hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 351360.
40.Mateo-Gallego, R, Perez-Calahorra, S, Cenarro, A, et al. (2012) Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women. Br J Nutr 107, 14031407.
41.Hagen, IV, Helland, A, Bratlie, M, et al. (2016) High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr 116, 648657.
42.Kris-Etherton, PM, Harris, WS & Appel, LJ (2002) Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106, 2747.
43.Clayton, ZS, Fusco, E & Kern, M (2017) Egg consumption and heart health: a review. Nutrition 37, 7985.
44.DiMarco, DM, Norris, GH, Millar, CL, et al. (2017) Intake of up to 3 eggs per day is associated with changes in HDL function and increased plasma antioxidants in healthy, young adults. J Nutr 147, 323329.
45.Geiker, NRW, Larsen, ML, Dyerberg, J, et al. (2018) Egg consumption, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 4456.
46.Weijenberg, MP, Feskens, EJ & Kromhout, D (1996) Age-related changes in total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in elderly Dutch men. Am J Public Health 86, 798803.
47.Volpato, S, Zuliani, G, Guralnik, JM, et al. (2001) The inverse association between age and cholesterol level among older patients: the role of poor health status. Gerontology 47, 3645.
48.Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) Australian Health Survey: Consumption of Food Groups from the Australian Dietary Guidelines, 2011–12. Catalogue no. 4364.0.55.012. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0122011-12 (accessed March 2019).

Keywords

Fat from dairy foods and ‘meat’ consumed within recommended levels is associated with favourable serum cholesterol levels in institutionalised older adults

  • Yusi Liu (a1), Shirley Poon (a1), Ego Seeman (a1) (a2), David L. Hare (a3), Minh Bui (a4) and Sandra Iuliano (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed