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It is well known that GPS measurements are regularly obstructed in urban environments. Positioning accuracy in such environments is significantly degraded and in many areas, it is not possible to obtain a GPS position fix at all. There are currently two methods that can be used to improve availability in the urban environment. Firstly, GPS receivers can be augmented with dead reckoning sensors such as an INS. Alternatively, High Sensitivity GPS (HSGPS) receivers can be used which are able to acquire and track very weak signals. This paper assesses the performance obtained from a GPS and low cost INS integrated system and a HSGPS receiver in an urban environment in Nottingham, UK. The navigation systems are compared to a high accuracy integrated GPS/INS system which is used to provide a reference trajectory. It is demonstrated that the differential GPS and low cost INS system can provide horizontal positioning accuracy of better than 2·5 m RMS in real-time, and better than 1 m RMS in post-processing, whereas the non-differential HSGPS receiver provides a real-time performance of 5 m RMS. These results were obtained in an environment where, with conventional GPS receivers, a position solution is only available 48·4% of the time. Operational considerations such as initial alignment of the GPS and low cost INS are also discussed when comparing the two systems for urban positioning applications.