Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-8kt4b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-16T21:16:49.471Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Structural Transformation in Zimbabwe: Comparative Notes from the Neo-Colonisation of Kenya

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 November 2008


When the details of the ‘Kissinger proposals for the transition to majority rule in Zimbabwe were made public in October 1976, containing generous proposals for the compensation of white Rhodesian settlers, a chord was struck among observers of African politics that the history of decolonisation in Kenya was about to repeat itself. There the British Government and international monetary agencies lent funds to the new African Government to compensate white settlers for the expropriation of their farms in the highland regions. The similarity between the Kenyan and Rhodesian colonial situations goes far deeper than the willingness of the western powers to bail out white settlers in a time of adversity. External financial assistance in Kenya ensured a smooth transition to a neo-colonial economy in which international capital was permitted expanded access to the resources and markets of Kenya and the East African region. Similarly the sudden concern of the western bloc for majority rule in Rhodesia and for the establishment of a ‘Zimbabwe Development Fund’ has been motivated by the prospect of the removal from the western sphere of economic control of the rich resources and markets of Southern Africa.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1977

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


page 594 note 1 Nkrumah, Kwame, Neo-Colonialism: the last stage of imperialism (New York, 1965), p. ix.Google Scholar

page 594 note 2 Accumulation on a World Scale (New York, 1975).

page 594 note 3 Thomas, Clive, Dependence and Transformation: the economics of the transition to socialism (New York, 1974), pp. 62 and 136.Google Scholar

page 595 note 1 Sunkel, Osvaldo, ‘Transnational Capitalism and National Disintegration in Latin America’, in Social and Economic Studies (Kingston), 22, 1973.Google Scholar

page 595 note 2 Leys, Colin, Underdevelopment in Kenya: the political economy of neo-colonialism, 1964–1971 (London, 1975), p. 63.Google Scholar

page 596 note 1 Ibid. p. 69.

page 596 note 2 Wasserman, Gary, ‘The Independence Bargain: Kenya Europeans and the land issue, 1960–1962’, in Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies (Leicester), XI, 2, 1973, p. 114.Google Scholar

page 597 note 1 Lamb, Geoff, Peasant Politics: conflict and development in Murang'a (Lewes, 1974).Google Scholar

page 597 note 2 Brett, E. A., Colonialism and Underdevelopment in East Africa: the politics of economic change, 1919–1939 (London, 1973), p. 276.Google Scholar

page 597 note 3 Leys, op. cit. p. 45.

page 598 note 1 Sources: Kenya: into the second decade (Baltimore, 1975), p. 58, and Africa South of the Sahara, 1976/77 (London, 1977), pp. 445 and 674.

page 598 note 2 Godfrey, Martin and Langdon, Steven, ‘Partners in Underdevelopment: the transnationalization thesis in a Kenyan context’, in Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics (Leicester), XIV, 1, 1976, p. 45.Google Scholar

page 598 note 3 Ibid. p. 46.

page 599 note 1 Leys, op. cit. p. 119.

page 599 note 2 Thomas, op. cit. pp. 88–98.

page 599 note 3 Godfrey and Langdon, loc. cit. p. 56.

page 599 note 4 Leys, op. cit. pp. 136–8.

page 599 note 5 Godfrey and Langdon, loc. cit. p. 44.

page 601 note 1 Leys, Colin, European Politics in Southern Rhodesia (Oxford, 1959), p. 98.Google Scholar

page 602 note 1 Kamm, Henry, ‘Rhodesia's Whites: the Good Life is in Jeopardy’, in New York Times, 17 10 1976Google Scholar.

page 602 note 2 Kay, George, Rhodesia: a human geography (New York, 1970), p. 105.Google Scholar

page 602 note 3 Government of Rhodesia, Reports on Agricultural Production in Rhodesia (Salisbury, 1965).

page 603 note 1 Government of Rhodesia, Report of the Secretary for Agriculture (Salisbury, 1973), p. 4.Google Scholar

page 604 note 1 Kay, op. cit. pp. 93–9.

page 604 note 2 Arrighi, Giovanni and Saul, John, Essays on the Political Economy of Africa (New York, 1973), pp. 180234.Google Scholar

page 604 note 3 Loney, Martin, Rhodesia: white racism and imperial response (Harmondsworth, 1975), p. 60.Google Scholar

page 604 note 4 Arrighi, Giovanni, The Political Economy of Rhodesia (The Hague, 1967), p. 36.Google Scholar

page 604 note 5 Sutcliffe, R., ‘Stagnation and Inequality in Rhodesia, 1946–1968’, in Bulletin of the Oxford Institute of Economics and Statistics (Oxford), 33, 1971, pp. 48–9.Google Scholar

page 604 note 6 I am indebted to Terence Ranger for this observation.

page 605 note 1 X-Ray: current affairs in Southern Africa (London), 05/06 1976.

page 605 note 2 Godfrey and Langdon, loc. cit. p. 45, adjusted for G.D.P.

page 605 note 3 Kamm, loc. cit. This figure puts the share of the United States somewhat higher than is usually assumed; one pre-U.D.I. estimate was as low as 6 per cent. See Sprack, John, Rhodesia: South Africa's sixth Province (London, 1974), p. 52.Google Scholar

page 606 note 1 Arrighi, op. cit. p. 42.

page 606 note 2 African Development (London), X, 11, 11 1976, p. 1098.

page 606 note 3 Southern Africa Magazine (New York), 7, 4, 1974, p. 20.

page 607 note 1 The Times (London), 14 04 1974.

page 608 note 1 Cronje, Suzanne et al. , Lonrho: portrait of a multinational (London, 1976), pp. 146 and 164.Google Scholar

page 608 note 2 Africa Research Bulletin: economic, technical and financial series (Exeter), 1973, p. 2761.

page 608 note 3 New York Times, 8 May 1977.

page 608 note 4 Africa Research Bulletin, 1976, p. 3929.

page 609 note 1 Centre for Social Action of the United Church of Christ, The Oil Conspiracy (New York, 1976).Google Scholar

page 609 note 2 Sprack, op. cit. p. 56.

page 609 note 3 Cronje et al. op. cit. p. 158.

page 611 note 1 Andrews, E. F., Vice-President of Allegheny Ludlum Industries, quoted in New African Development (London), XI, 1, 01 1977, p. 19.Google Scholar