Skip to main content Accessibility help

Topographical changes induced by high dose carbon-bombardment of graphite

  • B.K. Annis (a1), D.F. Pedraza (a2) and S.P. Withrow (a3)


Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been implanted at room temperature with 165 keV C+-ions at doses from 6 × 1017 to 3 × 1019 ions/m2. Implantation-induced topographical changes of differing size scales were studied by optical, scanning electron, scanning tunneling, and atomic force microscopies. Defects with atomic resolution are seen for the lower dose implants. The formation of a vacancy line is revealed for the first time. At the higher doses a dendrite-like system of deep surface cracks is observed. This cracking develops as a result of the large basal plane contraction produced by irradiation which generates high shearing stresses between the implanted, damaged surface layer and the underlying material. Two independent systems of ridges have been characterized. One appears to follow a crystallographic direction while the other appears as a dense, intricate, generally curvilinear network with short ramifications. Additional experiments in which both the ion energy and dose rate have been varied indicate that ridge evolution progresses with increased energy and fluence, but is independent of dose rate. It is suggested that the ridge networks may form as a result of C transport by diffusion from the heavily damaged near-surface region or of a tectonic-plate-like motion or both. The geometric features of the ridge networks are related to the subsurface radiation damage as well.



Hide All
1Dresselhaus, M. S. and Kalish, R., Ion Implantation in Diamond, Graphite and Related Materials (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1992).
2Thomas, G. J., Bauer, W., Mattern, P. L., and Granoff, B., Adv. Chem. Ser. 158, 97 (1976).
3Veprek, S., Portmann, A., Webb, A. P., and Stuessi, H., Radiat. Eff. 34, 183 (1977).
4Sone, K., Abe, T., Obara, K., Yamada, R., and Ohtsuka, H., J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 82 (1977).
5Langley, R. A., Blewer, R. S., and Roth, J., J. Nucl. Mater. 76/77, 313 (1978).
6Angstrom, T. R. and Johnson, P. B., J. Nucl. Mater. 60, 241 (1976).
7Erents, S. K., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 28, 318 (1976).
8Yugo, S., Kimura, T., and Kazumata, Y., Carbon 23, 147 (1985).
9Niwase, K. and Tanabe, T., Proc. Int. Symp. Materials Chemistry in Nuclear Environments, March 1992, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 437447.
10Bacon, D. J. and Rao, A. S., J. Nucl. Mater. 91, 178 (1980).
11Elman, B. S., Shayegan, M., Dresselhaus, M. S., Mazurek, H., and Dresselhaus, G., Phys. Rev. B 25, 4412 (1982).
12Coratger, R., Claverie, A., Ajustron, F., and Beauvillain, J., Surf. Sci. 227, 7 (1990).
13Freise, E. J. and Kelly, A., Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 264, 269 (1961).
14Porte, L., Phaner, M., de Villeneuve, C. H., Moncoffre, N., and Tousset, J., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 44, 116 (1989).
15Coratger, R., Claverie, A., Chahboun, A., Landry, V., Ajustron, F., and Beauvillain, J., Surf. Sci. 262, 208 (1992).
16Porte, L., de Villeneuve, C.H., and Phaner, M., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 1064 (1991).
17Shedd, G. M. and Russell, P. E., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1261 (1991).
18Ziegler, J. F., Biersack, J. P., and Littmark, U., The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, edited by Ziegler, J. F. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1985), Vol. 1.
19Koike, J. and Pedraza, D. F., to be published in Proc. Int. Conf. on Beam Processing of Advanced Materials (ASM, Chicago, 1992).
20Thrower, P. A. and Mayer, R. M., Phys. Status Solidi A 47, 11 (1978).
21Annis, B. K. and Pedraza, D. F., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1993, in press).
22Kenik, E. A., Pedraza, D. F., and Withrow, S., unpublished.
23Park, S-I. and Quate, C.F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 112 (1986).
24Mizes, H. A., Park, S-I., and Harrison, W.A., Phys. Rev. B 36, 4491 (1987).
25Salemink, H. W. M., Batra, I. O., Rohrer, H., Stall, E., and Weibel, E., Surf. Sci. 181, 139 (1987).
26Albrecht, T. R. and Quate, C. F., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 271 (1988).
27Colton, R. J., Baker, S. M., Driscoll, R. J., Youngquist, M. G., and Baldeschwieler, J. D., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 349 (1988).
28Tjede, T., Varon, J., Deckman, H., and Stokes, J., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 372 (1988).
29Yao, J. E. and Jiao, Y. K., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 508 (1990).
30Elings, V. and Wudl, F., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 412 (1988).
31Hembree, D. M. Jr., Pedraza, D. F., and Withrow, S. P., unpublished.
32Hembree, D. M. Jr., Pedraza, D. F., Romanoski, G., Withrow, S. P., and Annis, B. K., in Beam-Solid Interactions-Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Nastasi, M. A., Herbots, N., Harriott, L. R., and Averback, R. S. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 279, Pittsburgh, PA, 1993).
33Pedraza, D. F., in Phase Formation and Modification by Beam-Solid Interactions, edited by Was, G. S., Rehn, L. E., and Follstaedt, D. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992), p. 437.
34Kelly, B. T., in Proc. Third SCI Conference on Industrial Carbons and Graphites (SCI, London, 1972), p. 483.
35Chieu, T. C., Elman, B. S., Salamanca-Riba, L., Endo, M., and Dresselhaus, G., in Ion Implantation and Ion Beam Processing of Materials, edited by Hubler, G. K., Holland, O. W., Clayton, C. R., and White, C.W. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 27, Elsevier Science Publishing, New York, 1984), p. 487.
36Gotoh, Y., Shimizu, H., and Murakami, H., J. Nucl. Mater. 162–164, 851 (1989).
37Koike, J. and Pedraza, D. F., unpublished.
38Kelly, B. T., Physics of Graphite (Applied Science Publishers, London and New Jersey, 1981).
39Roscoe, C. and Baker, J., J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1665 (1969).
40More, A. W., in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, edited by Walker, P. L. Jr. and Thrower, P. A. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1973), Vol. 11, p. 69.
41Niwase, K. and Tanabe, J., J. Nucl. Mater. 179–181, 218 (1991).
42Kenik, E. A., Pedraza, D. F., and Withrow, S. P., in MSA Meeting Proceedings, to appear in August 1993.

Topographical changes induced by high dose carbon-bombardment of graphite

  • B.K. Annis (a1), D.F. Pedraza (a2) and S.P. Withrow (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed