Skip to main content Accessibility help

Texture in Ti/Al and Nb/Al multilayer thin films: Role of Cu

  • G. Lucadamo (a1), K. Barmak (a2) and K. P. Rodbell (a3)


Fiber texture in Ti/Al and Nb/Al polycrystalline multilayer thin films, with bilayer thicknesses (Λ) ranging from 20–333 nm and having a fixed stoichiometry of 1/3, has been investigated by using x-ray pole figures and transmission electron microscopy. Two sets of films were deposited; one set contained pure Al and the other Al–1.0 wt% Cu. The results indicated that texture was strengthened by the formation of a coherent superlattice for the Nb/pure-Al film with the smallest bilayer thickness. By contrast, the texture in Ti/pure-Al films with a similar period was not as strong. The texture also decreased with increasing Λ for both the Ti/pure-Al and Nb/pure-Al films. An increase in the width of the Al (111) peak and an offset of the fiber axis from the substrate normal of 5–8° was observed in the Λ = 333 nm films prepared by using Al–1.0 wt% Cu. The decrease in texture on addition of Cu to Al was attributed primarily to an increase in interlayer roughness as a consequence of reduction in the Al(Cu) grain size. These observations were interpreted in the context of structure zone and dynamic roughness models of film growth.


Corresponding author

b)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mial:


Hide All
1.Vaidya, S. and Sinha, A.K., Thin Solid Films 75, 253 (1981).
2.Knorr, D.B., Rodbell, K.P., and Tracy, D.P., in Materials Reliability Issues in Microelectronics, edited by Lloyd, J.R., Ho, P.S., Sah, C.T., and Yost, F. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 225, Pittsburgh, PA, 1991), p. 21.
3.Knorr, D.B., Tracy, D.P., and Rodbell, K.P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3241 (1991).
4.Knorr, D.B., in Materials Reliability in Microelectronics, III, edited by Rodbyl, K.P., Filter, W.F., Frost, H.J., and Ho, P.S. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 309, Pittsburgh, PA, 1993), p. 75.
5.Tracy, D.P., Knorr, D.B., and Rodbell, K.P., J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2671 (1994).
6.Knorr, D.B. and Rodbell, K.P., J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2409 (1996).
7.Knorr, D.B., Merchant, S.M., and Bilberger, M.A., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 2734 (1998).
8.Ting, L.M. and Hong, Q-Z., in Materials Reliability in Microelectronics VI, edited by Filter, W.F., Clement, J.J., Oates, A.S., Rosenberg, R., and Lenahan, P.M. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 428, Pittsburgh, PA, 1996), p. 75.
9.Onoda, H., Touchi, K., and Hashimoto, K., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 2 34, L1037 (1995).
10.Onoda, H., Narita, T., Touchi, K., and Hashimoto, K., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 2645 (1996).
11.Rodbell, K.P., Svilan, V., Gignac, L.M., Dehaven, P.W., Murphy, R.J., and Licata, T.J., in Materials Reliability in Microelectronics VI, edited by Filter, W.F., Clement, J.J., Oates, A.S., Rosenberg, R., and Lenahan, P.M. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 428, Pittsburgh, PA, 1996), p. 261.
12.Murray, C.E., Ph.D. Thesis, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (2000).
13.Michaelsen, C., Wöhlert, S., and Bormann, R., in Polycrystalline Thin Films: Structure, Texture, Properties, and Applications, edited by Barmak, K., Parker, M.A., Floro, J.A., Sinclair, R., and Smith, D.A. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 343, Pittsburgh, PA, 1994), p. 205.
14.Adamik, M., Tomov, I., and Barna, P.B., Solid State Phenom. 56, 213 (1997).
15.Adamik, M., Barna, P.B., and Tomov, I., Surf. Coat. Technol. 100–101, 333 (1998).
16.Barmak, K., Michaelsen, C., Vivekanand, S., and Ma, F., Phil. Mag. A 77, 167 (1998).
17.McWhan, D.B., Gurvich, M., Rowell, J.M., and Walker, L.R., J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3886 (1983).
18.Baumann, J.R., Liebemann, E.K., Simon, M., and Bucher, E., Phys. Rev. B 45, 3778 (1992).
19.Lucadamo, G., Watanabe, M., Barmak, K., Williams, D.B., Michaelsen, C., and Alani, R., Phil. Mag. A 79, 1423 (1999).
20.Lucadamo, G., Barmak, K., Hyun, S., Cabral, C. Jr, and Lavoie, C., Mat. Lett. 39, 268 (1999).
21.Lucadamo, G., Barmak, K., Carpenter, D.T., Lavoie, C., Cabral, C. Jr., Michaelsen, C., and Rickman, J.M., in Polycrystalline Metal and Magnetic Thin Films, edited by Laughlin, D.E., Rodbell, K.P., Thomas, O., and Zhang, B. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 562, Pittsburgh, PA, 1999), p. 159.
22.Lucadamo, G., Barmak, K., and Hyun, S., Thermochim. Acta 348, 53 (2000).
23.Lucadamo, G., Ph.D. Thesis, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (1999).
24.Joint Committeeon Powder Diffraction Standards, Powder Diffraction File, Inorganic Index (Swarthmore, PA: International Center for Diffraction Data) (1998).
25.Michaelsen, C., Wolhert, S., Bormann, R., and Barmak, K., in Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations, edited by Im, J.S., Park, B., Greer, A.L., and Stephenson, G.B. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 398, Pittsburgh, PA, 1996), p. 245.
26.Michaelsen, C. (private communication).
27.Bonevich, J., van Heerden, D., and Josell, D., J. Mater. Res. 14, 1977 (1999).
28.Savage, D.E., Schimke, N., Phang, Y-H., and Lagally, M.G., J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283 (1992).
29.Kominami, S., Yamada, H., Miyamoto, N., and Takagi, K., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 3, 2182 (1993).
30.Thomas, C.D., Ulmer, M.P., and Ketterson, J.B., J. Appl. Phys. 84, 364 (1998).
31.Srolovitz, D.J., Mazor, A., and Bukiet, B.G., J. Vac. Soc. A 6, 2371 (1988).
32.Lita, A.E. and Sanchez, J.E. Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 85, 876 (1999).
33.Lita, A.E. and Sanchez, J.E. Jr., Phys. Rev. B 61, 7693 (2000).
34.Family, F. and Viscek, T., J. Phys. A 18, 75 (1985).
35.Esposito, A. and Monticone, E., Phil. Mag. B 80, 1133 (2000).
36.Grovenor, C.R.M., Hentzell, H.T.G., and Smith, D.A., Acta Metall. 32, 773 (1984).
37.Barna, P.B. and Adamik, M., Thin Solid Films 317, 27 (1998).
38.Cahn, J.W., Acta Metall. 10, 789 (1962).
39.Demianczuk, D.W. and Aust, K.T., Acta Metall. 23, 1149 (1975).
40.Pearson, W.B., A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 328.
41.Copel, M., Rodbell, K.P., and Tromp, R.M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1625 (1996).
42.Solak, H.H., Lorusso, G.F., Singh-Gasson, S., and Cerrina, F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 22 (1999).
43.Barmak, K., Coffey, K.R., Rudman, D.A., and Foner, S., J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3780 (1990).

Texture in Ti/Al and Nb/Al multilayer thin films: Role of Cu

  • G. Lucadamo (a1), K. Barmak (a2) and K. P. Rodbell (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed