Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Studies on mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis of tailor welded blanks of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet

  • A. Karpagaraj (a1), N. Siva Shanmugam (a1) and K. Sankaranarayanasamy (a1)

Abstract

In the present study, Ti–6Al–4V alloy sheets having a thickness of 1.6 mm and 2 mm are chosen for carrying out weldability studies using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. The quality of the weld was examined through metallographic (macro- and micrographs) analyses. The welded specimens were subjected to mechanical tests to examine the behavior of tailor welded blanks (TWBs). Grain coarsening at fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone was confirmed through optical microscope. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the presence of thin α-phases surrounded by β-grains at FZ. The maximum hardness distribution of 383 HV is obtained at FZ. Tensile test results revealed an increase of 3.58% strength as compared to the thin base metal. At fracture surface, the presence of various sized dimples was identified through SEM. Erichsen cupping test showed that formability performance of the TWB was affected by a negligible percentage.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: nsiva@nitt.edu

Footnotes

Hide All

Contributing Editor: Jürgen Eckert

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Morishita, Y., Kado, T., Abe, S., Sakamoto, Y., and Yoshida, F.: Role of counterpunch for square-cup drawing of tailored blank composed of thick/thin sheets. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 212, 2102 (2012).
2. Mohrbacher, H., Spottl, M., and Paegle, J.: Innovative manufacturing technology enabling light weighting with steel in commercial vehicles. Adv. Manuf. 3, 3 (2015).
3. Qi, Y.: The new technology in the automotive industry by using tailor welded blanks. (Undated). Available at: http://www.baosteel.com/english_n/e07technical_n/21be.pdf (accessed 28 November 2015).
4. Merklein, M., Johannes, M., Lechner, M., and Kuppert, A.: A review on tailored blank production, applications and evaluation. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 151 (2014).
5. Panda, S.K., Kumar, D.R., Kumar, H., and Nath, A.K.: Characterization of tensile properties of tailor welded IF steel sheets and their formability in stretch forming. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 183, 321 (2007).
6. Korouyeh, R.S., Naeini, H.M., Torkamany, M.J., and Liaghat, G.: Experimental and theoretical investigation of thickness ratio effect on the formability of tailor welded blank. Opt. Laser Technol. 51, 24 (2013).
7. Babu, K.V., Narayanan, R.G., and Kumar, G.S.: An expert system based on artificial neural network for predicting the tensile behaviour of tailor welded blanks. Expert Syst. Appl. 36, 10683 (2009).
8. Piwnik, J., Hadrys, D., and Skorulski, G.: Plastic properties of weld after micro-jet cooling. Arch. Mater. Sci. Eng. 59, 20 (2013).
9. Tajally, M. and Emadoddin, E.: Mechanical and anisotropic behaviours of 7075 aluminum alloy sheets. Mater. Des. 32, 1594 (2011).
10. Winowiecka, J., Wieckowski, W., and Zawadzki, M.: Evaluation of draw ability of tailor-welded blanks made of titanium alloys grade 2||grade 5. Comput. Mater. Sci. 77, 108 (2013).
11. Anand, D., Chen, D.L., Bhole, S.D., Andreychuck, P., and Boudreau, G.: Fatigue behaviour of tailor (laser)-welded blanks for automotive applications. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 420, 199 (2006).
12. Davies, R.W., Oliver, H.E., Smith, M.T., and Grant, G.J.: Characterizing Al tailor-welded blanks for automotive applications. JOM 51, 46 (1999).
13. Suresh, V.S., Regalla, S.P., Gupta, A.K., and Padmanabham, G.: Weld Line Shift in the case of tailor welded blanks subjected to differential strengths with respect to TIG and laser welding. Mater. Today. Proc. 2, 3501 (2015).
14. Kleiner, M., Geiger, M., and Klaus, A.: Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. CIRP Ann. 52, 521 (2003).
15. Patel, B.C., Shah, J., and Shah, H.: Review on formability of tailor-welded blanks. ISSN (Print): 2319 (2012).
16. Adamus, J. and Lacki, P.: Analysis of forming titanium welded blanks. Comput. Mater. Sci. 94, 66 (2014).
17. Xu, W., Westerbaan, D., Nayak, S.S., Chen, D.L., Goodwin, F., and Zhou, Y.: Tensile and fatigue properties of fiber laser welded high strength low alloy and DP980 dual-phase steel joints. Mater. Des. 43, 373 (2013).
18. Pallett, R.J. and Lark, R.J.: The use of tailored blanks in the manufacture of construction components. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 117, 249 (2001).
19. Giridharan, P.K. and Murugan, N.: Optimization of pulsed GTA welding process parameters for the welding of AISI 304L stainless steel sheets. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech. 40, 478 (2009).
20. Karpagaraj, A., Siva Shanmugam, N., and Sankaranarayanasamy, K.: Some studies on mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of automated TIG welding of thin commercially pure titanium sheets. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 640, 180 (2015).
21. Balasubramanian, T.S., Balasubramanian, V., and Muthumanikkam, M.A.: Fatigue performance of gas tungsten arc, electron beam and laser beam welded Ti–6Al–4V alloy joints. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 20, 1620 (2011).
22. Sundaresan, S., Ram, G.J., and Reddy, G.M.: Microstructural refinement of weld fusion zones in α–β titanium alloys using pulsed current welding. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 262, 88 (1999).
23. Liu, H.J., Zhou, L., and Liu, Q.W.: Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. Mater. Des. 31, 1650 (2010).
24. Squillace, A., Prisco, U., Ciliberto, S., and Astarita, A.: Effect of welding parameters on morphology and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V laser beam welded butt joints. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 212, 427 (2012).
25. Caiazzo, F., Curcio, F., Daurelio, G., and Memola Capece Minutolo, F.: Ti6Al4V sheets lap and butt joints carried out by CO2 laser: Mechanical and morphological characterization. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 149, 546 (2004).
26. Balasubramanian, T.S., Balakrishnan, M., Balasubramanian, V., and Muthu manickam, M.A.: Influence of welding processes on microstructure, tensile and impact properties of Ti–6Al–4V alloy joints. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 21, 1253 (2011).
27. Akman, E., Demir, A., Canel, T., and Sinmazçelik, T.: Laser welding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloys. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209, 3705 (2009).
28. Wanjara, P., Brochu, M., and Jahazi, M.: Thin gauge titanium manufacturing using multiple-pass-electron beam welding. Mater. Manuf. Processes 21, 439 (2006).
29. Meinders, T., Van den Berg, A., and Huetink, J.: Deep drawing simulations of tailored blanks and experimental verification. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 103, 65 (2000).
30. Wu, Q., Gong, J., Chen, G., and Xu, L.: Research on laser welding of vehicle body. Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 420 (2008).
31. Keeler, S.P.: Circular grid system a valuable aid for evaluating sheet metal formability. SAE Technical Paper, 680092 (1968).
32. Kamp, A., Celotto, S., and Hanlon, D.N.: Effects of tempering on the mechanical properties of high strength dual-phase steels. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 538, 35 (2012).
33. Lai, C.P., Chan, L.C., and Chow, C.L.: Effects of tooling temperatures on formability of titanium TWBs at elevated temperatures. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 191, 157 (2007).
34. Chan, L.C., Chan, S.M., Cheng, C.H., and Lee, T.C.: Formability and weld zone analysis of tailor-welded blanks for various thickness ratios. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 127, 179 (2005).

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Studies on mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis of tailor welded blanks of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet

  • A. Karpagaraj (a1), N. Siva Shanmugam (a1) and K. Sankaranarayanasamy (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.