Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Prediction of formation of intermetallic compounds in diffusion couples

  • Huashan Liu (a1), Hang Wang (a1), Wenjun Zhu (a1), Xiaoma Tao (a1) and Zhanpeng Jin (a1)...

Abstract

Formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the interface between two metals during soldering processing exerts much influence on the electrical and mechanical performance of integrate circuits (ICs). Considering both of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors (including nucleation and growth) on phase formation, a new model capable of predicting phase formation sequence at the interface between two metals with different structures has been proposed in this work. Application of this new model on the interfacial reactions between pure elemental pairs of metals such as Ni/Sn, Cu/In, Cu/Sn, and Co/Sn at different temperatures shows good agreement between predictions by this model and experimental observations.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: hsliu@mail.csu.edu.cn

References

Hide All
1Bader, S., Gust, W.Hieber, H.: Rapid formation of intermetallic compounds by interdiffusion in the Cu–Sn and Ni–Sn systems. Acta Metall. Mater. 43, 329 1995
2Tu, K.N.Rosenburg, R.: Room temperature interaction in bimetallic thin film couples. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.(Suppl. 2, Part 1) 633 1974
3Gur, D.Bamaerger, M.: Reactive isothermal solidification in the Ni–Sn system. Acta Mater. 46, 4917 1998
4Tu, K.N.: Interdiffusion and reaction in bimetallic Cu–Sn thin films. Acta Metall. 21, 347 1973
5Chopra, R.Ohring, M.: Low temperature compound formation in Cu/Sn thin film couples. Thin Solid Films 94, 279 1982
6Su, L.H., Yen, Y.W., Lin, C.C.Chen, S.W.: Interfacial reactions in molten Sn/Cu and molten In/Cu couples. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 28, 927 1997
7Manna, I., Bader, S., Gust, W.Predel, B.: Interdiffusion between In layer and bulk Cu or Cu–In alloy. Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K9 1990
8Roy, R., Sen, S.K.Sen, S.: Formation of intermetallics in Cu/In thin films. J. Mater. Res. 7, 1377 1992
9Johnson, W.L.: Non-equilibrium processing of materials. Prog. Mater. Sci. 30, 81 1986
10d’Heurle, F.M.: Nucleation of a new phase from the interaction of two adjacent phases: Some silicides. J. Mater. Res. 3, 167 1988
11Clevenger, L.A.Thompson, C.V.: Nucleation-limited phase selection during reactions in nickel/amorphous-silicon multilayer thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1323 1990
12Thompson, C.V.: On the role of diffusion in phase selection during reactions at interfaces. J. Mater. Res. 7, 367 1992
13Turnbull, D.: Solid State Physics, edited by F. Seitz and D. Turnbull (Academic Press, New York, 1956), Vol. 3, p. 225
14Lee, B.J., Hwang, N.M.Lee, H.M.: Prediction of interface reaction products between Cu and various solder alloys by thermodynamic calculation. Acta Mater. 45, 1867 1997
15Choi, W.K.Lee, H.M.: Prediction of primary intermetallic compound formation during interfacial reaction between Sn-based solder and Ni substrate. Scripta Mater. 46, 777 2002
16Nishizawa, T.Chiba, A.: Phenomenological consideration on inter-phase equilibrium in diffusion couple. J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 34, 629 1970
17Gösele, U.Tu, K.N.: Growth kinetics of planar binary diffusion couples: “Thin-film case” versus “Bulk cases.” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3252 1982
18Thompson, C.V., Clevenger, L.A., DeAvillez, R.R., Ma, E.Miura, H.Kinetics and thermodynamics of amorphous silicide formation in metal/amorphous-silicon multilayer thin films, in Thin Film Structures and Phase Stability,edited by B.M. Clemens and W.L. Johnson, (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 187, Pittsburgh, PA, 1990), p. 61
19Highmore, R.J., Greer, A.L., Leake, J.A.Evetts, J.E.: Transient nucleation model for solid state amorphisation. Mater. Lett. 6, 401 1988
20Van Loo, F.J.J.: Multiphase diffusion in binary and ternary solid-state systems. Prog. Solid State Chem. 20, 47 1990
21Zeng, K.Kivilahti, J.K.: Use of multicomponent phase diagrams for predicting phase evolution in solder/conductor systems. J. Electr. Mater. 30, 35 2001
22Liu, C.L., Liu, H.S.Jin, Z.P.: Application of CALPHAD in soldering of electronic materials. Chinese J. Trans. Non-Ferr. Met. 13, 1343 2003
23Wang, J., Liu, H.S., Liu, L.B.Jin, Z.P.: Interfacial reaction between Sn–Bi alloy and Ni substrate. J. Electron. Mater. 35, 1842 2006
24Johnson, W.A.Mehl, R.F.: Reaction kinetics of nucleation and growth. Trans. AIME 135, 416 1939
25Toschev, S.Gutzow, I.: Time lag in heterogeneous nucleation due to nonstationary effects. Phys. Status Solidi 21, 683 1967
26Kelly, T.F., Cohen, M.Sande, J.B. Vander: Rapid solidification of a droplet-prcessed stainless steel. Metall. Trans. A 15, 819 1984
27Hillert, M.Fick’s first law and its application, in Diffusion and Thermodynamics in Alloys, translated by H.Y. Lai and G. X. Liu (Press of Metallurgic Industry, Beijing, China, 1984)
28Christian, J.W.The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys, 1st ed., (Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1965), p. 537
29Gagliano, R.A.Fine, M.E.: Thickening kinetics of interfacial Cu6Sn5and Cu3Sn layers during reaction of liquid tin with solid copper. J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1441 2003
30Shim, J.H., Oh, C.S., Lee, B.J.Lee, D.N.: Thermodynamic assessment of the Cu–Sn system. Z. Metallkd. 87, 205 1996
31Chen, S.W., Lee, S.W.Yip, M.C.: Mechanical properties and intermetallic compound formation at the Sn/Ni and Sn–0.7wt%Cu/Ni joints. J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1284 2003
32Kang, S.K.Ramachandran, V.: Growth kinetics of intermetallic phases at the liquid Sn and solid Ni interface. Scripta Metall. 14, 421 1980
33Kim, J.H., Jeong, S.W., Kim, H.D.Lee, H.M.: Morphological transition of interfacial Ni3Sn4grains at the Sn–3.5Ag/Ni joint. J. Electr. Mater. 32, 1228 2003
34Liu, H.S., Wang, J.Jin, Z.P.: Thermodynamic optimization of the Ni–Sn binary system. CALPHAD 28, 363 2004
35Liu, H.S., Liu, X.J., Cui, Y., Wang, C.P., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R., Jin, Z.P.Ishida, K.: Thermodynamic assessment of the Cu–In binary system. J. Phase Equil. 23, 409 2002
36Guilmin, P., Guyot, P.Marchal, G.: Amorphization of crystalline Co and Sn multilayers by solid state reaction. Phys. Lett. A 109, 174 1985
37Jiang, M., Sato, J., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R.Ishida, K.: A thermodynamic assessment of the Co–Sn system. CALPHAD 28, 213 2004
38Fecht, H.J.Johson, W.L.: Entropy and enthalpy catastrophe as a stability limit for crystalline material. Nature 334, 50 1988
39Eustathopoulos, N., Coudurier, L., Joud, J.C.Desré, P.: Thermodynamic study of solid/liquid interface tension for a binary metal system.: Pt. 3. Experimental study of the Cu–Pb system—Application to the determination of the interface tension of pure Cu. J. Chim. Phys. 71, 1465 1974

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed