Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

On the fatigue properties of metals manufactured by selective laser melting – The role of ductility

  • Stefan Leuders (a1), Tobias Lieneke (a2), Stefan Lammers (a2), Thomas Tröster (a3) and Thomas Niendorf (a4)...

Abstract

The selective-laser-melting (SLM) technique is an outstanding new production technology that allows for time-efficient fabrication of highly complex components from various metals. SLM processing leads to the evolution of numerous microstructural features strongly affecting the mechanical properties. For enabling application in envisaged fields the development of a robust production process for components subjected to different loadings is crucially needed. With regard to the behavior of SLM components subjected to cyclic loadings, the damage evolution can be significantly different depending on the raw material that is used, which is, in this case, highly ductile austenitic stainless steel 316L and high-strength titanium alloy TiAl6V4. By means of a thorough set of experiments, including postprocessing, mechanical testing focusing on high-cycle fatigue and microstructure analyses, it could be shown that the behavior of TiAl6V4 under cyclic loading is dominated by the process-induced pores. The fatigue behavior of 316L, in contrast, is strongly affected by its monotonic strength.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: stefan.leuders@upb.de

References

Hide All
1. Murr, L.E., Martinez, E., Amato, K.N., Gaytan, S.M., Hernandez, J., Ramirez, D.A., Shindo, P.W., Medina, F.R., and Wicker, R.B.: Fabrication of metal and alloy components by additive manufacturing: Examples of 3d materials science. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 1, 42 (2012).
2. Gu, D.D., Meiners, W., Wissenbach, K., and Poprawe, R.: Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: Materials, processes and mechanisms. Int. Mater. Rev. 57, 133 (2012).
3. Wong, K.V. and Hernandez, A.: A review of additive manufacturing. ISRN Mech. Eng. 2012, 208760 (2012).
4. Niendorf, T. and Brenne, F.: Steel showing twinning-induced plasticity processed by selective laser melting - An additively manufactured high performance material. Mater. Charact. 85, 57 (2013).
5. Murr, L.E., Gaytan, S.M., Ramirez, D.A., Martinaz, E., Hernandez, J., Amato, K.N., Shindo, P.W., Medina, F.R., and Wicker, R.B.: Metal fabrication by additive manufacturing using laser and electron beam melting technologies. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 1 (2012).
6. Riemer, A., Leuders, S., Thöne, M., Richard, H.A., Tröster, T., and Niendorf, T.: On the fatigue crack growth behavior in 316L stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting. Eng. Fract. Mech. 120, 15 (2014).
7. Leuders, S., Thöne, M., Riemer, A., Niendorf, T., Tröster, T., Richard, H.A., and Maier, H.J.: On the mechanical behaviour of titanium alloy TiAl6V4 manufactured by selective laser melting: Fatigue resistance and crack growth performance. Int. J. Fatigue 48, 300 (2013).
8. Liu, Z., Zhang, D., Sing, S., and Chua, C.: Interfacial characterisation of SLM parts in multi material processing: Metallurgical diffusion between 316 L stainless steel and C18400 copper alloy. Mater. Charact. 94, 116 (2014).
9. Vrancken, B., Thijs, L., Kruth, J., and Van Humbeeck, J.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel β titanium metallic composite by selective laser melting. Acta Mater. 68, 150 (2014).
10. Scharowsky, T., Osmanlic, F., Singer, R.F., and Körner, C.: Melt pool dynamics during selective electron beam melting. Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 114, 1303 (2014).
11. Emmelmann, C., Scheinemann, P., Munsch, M., and Seyda, V.: Laser additive manufacturing of modified implant surfaces with osseointegrative characteristics. Phys. Procedia 12, 375 (2011).
12. Yan, C., Hao, L., Hussein, A., Young, P., and Raymont, D.: Advanced lightweight 316L stainless steel cellular lattice structures fabricated via selective laser melting. Mater. Des. 55, 533 (2014).
13. Brenne, F., Niendorf, T., and Maier, H.J.: Additively manufactured cellular structures: Impact of microstructure and local strains on the monotonic and cyclic behavior under uniaxial and bending load. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1558 (2013).
14. Murr, L.E., Amato, K.N., Li, S.J., Tian, Y.X., Cheng, X.Y., Gaytan, S.M., Martinez, E., Shindo, P.W., Medina, F., and Wicker, R.B.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 4, 1396 (2011).
15. Habijan, T., Haberland, C., Meier, H., Frenzel, J., Wittsiepe, J., Wuwer, C., Greulich, C., Schildhauer, T.A., and Köller, M.: The biocompatibility of dense and porous Nickel–Titanium produced by selective laser melting. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 33, 419 (2013).
16. Heinl, P., Müller, L., Körner, C., Singer, R.F., and Müller, F.A.: Cellular Ti–6Al–4V structures with interconnected macro porosity for bone implants fabricated by selective electron beam melting. Acta Biomater. 4, 1536 (2008).
17. Levy, G.N., Schindel, R., and Kruth, J.: Rapid manufacturing and rapid tooling with layer manufacturing (LM) technologies, state of the art and future perspectives. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 52, 589 (2003).
18. Niendorf, T., Leuders, S., Riemer, A., Richard, H.A., Tröster, T., and Schwarze, D.: Highly anisotropic steel processed by selective laser melting. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 44B, 794 (2013).
19. Kanagarajah, P., Brenne, F., Niendorf, T., and Maier, H.J.: Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting: Effect of microstructure and temperature on the mechanical properties under static and cyclic loading. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 588, 188 (2013).
20. Brandl, E., Heckenberger, U., Holzinger, V., and Buchbinder, D.: Additive manufactured AlSi10Mg samples using selective laser melting (SLM): Microstructure, high cycle fatigue, and fracture behavior. Mater. Des. 34, 159 (2012).
21. Edwards, P. and Ramulu, M.: Fatigue performance evaluation of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 598, 327 (2014).
22. Murr, L.E., Quinones, S.A., Gaytan, S.M., Lopez, M.I., Rodela, A., Martinez, E.Y., Hernandez, D.H., Martinez, E., Medina, F., and Wicker, R.B.: Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V produced by rapid-layer manufacturing, for biomedical applications. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2, 20 (2009).
23. Kashyap, B.P. and Tangri, K.: On the hall-petch relationship and substructural evolution in type 316L stainless steel. Acta Metall. Mater. 43, 3971 (1995).
24. Murr, L.E., Martinez, E., Hernandez, J., Collins, S., Amato, K.N., Gaytan, S.M., and Shindo, P.W.: Microstructures and properties of 17-4 PH stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 1, 167 (2012).
25. Eylon, D. and Strope, B.: Fatigue crack initiation in Ti-6wt % Al-4wt % V castings. J. Mater. Sci. 14, 345 (1979).
26. Ivanova, S.G., Biedeman, R.R., and Sisson, R.D. Jr.: Investigation of fatigue crack initiation in Ti-6Al-4V during tensile-tensile fatigue. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 11, 226 (2002).
27. Saitova, L.R., Höppel, H.W., Göken, M., Semenova, I.P., and Valiev, R.Z.: Cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue lives of ultrafine-grained Ti-6AL-4V. Int. J. Fatigue 31, 322 (2009).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed