Skip to main content Accessibility help

Microstructure of Epitaxial SrTiO3/Pt/Ti/ Sapphire Heterostructures

  • Steffen Schmidt (a1), Young-Woo Ok (a1), Dmitri O. Klenov (a1), Jiwei Lu (a1), Sean P. Keane (a1) and Susanne Stemmer (a1)...


The microstructure and orientation relationships of epitaxial (111)-oriented SrTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on epitaxial (111)-oriented Pt/Ti electrodes on sapphire were investigated using x-ray diffraction, conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that the epitaxial growth of (111)-oriented SrTiO3 films was promoted by thin Ti adhesion layers underneath the Pt electrode. The SrTiO3 films nucleated with two twin-related orientation variants, rotated by 180° about the 〈111〉 surface normal. The twin boundaries were oriented approximately normal to the film plane, but no strong preference for a specific boundary plane was observed. Growth mechanisms and the relationships to the dielectric properties are discussed.


Corresponding author

b) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1Dimos, D. and Mueller, C.H.: Perovskite thin films for high-frequency capacitor applications. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 397 (1998).
2Tagantsev, A.K., Sherman, V.O., Astafiev, K.F., Venkatesh, J. and Setter, N.: Ferroelectric materials for microwave tunable applications. J. Electroceram. 11, 5 (2003).
3Xi, X.X., Li, H.C., Si, W.D., Sirenko, A.A., Akimov, I.A., Fox, J.R., Clark, A.M. and Hao, J.H.: Oxide thin films for tunable microwave devices. J. Electroceram. 4, 393 (2000).
4Dube, D.C., Baborowski, J., Muralt, P. and Setter, N.: The effect of bottom electrode on the performance of thin film based capacitors in the gigahertz region. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3546 (1999).
5Hwang, C.S., Vaudin, M.D. and Schenck, P.K.: Influence of the microstructure of Pt/Si substrates on textured growth of barium titanate thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. J. Mater. Res. 13, 368 (1998).
6Bilodeau, S.M., Carl, R., Van Buskirk, P.C., Roeder, J.F., Basceri, C., Lash, S.E., Parker, C.B., Streiffer, S.K. and Kingon, A.I.: Dielectric properties and microstructure of thin BST films. J. Korean Phys. Soc. 32, S1591 (1998).
7Kotecki, D.E., Baniecki, J.D., Shen, H., Laibowitz, R.B., Saenger, K.L., Lian, J.J., Shaw, T.M., Athavale, S.D., Cabral, C., Duncombe, P.R., Gutsche, M., Kunkel, G., Park, Y.J., Wang, Y.Y. and Wise, R.: (Ba,Sr) TiO3 dielectrics for future stacked-capacitor DRAM. IBM J. Res. Dev. 43, 367 (1999).
8Komatsu, S. and Abe, K.: Crystallographic orientation dependence of dielectric constant in epitaxially grown SrTiO3 films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 3597 (1995).
9Schmidt, S., Lu, J.W., Keane, S.P., Bregante, L.D., Klenov, D.O. and Stemmer, S.: Microstructure and dielectric properties of textured SrTiO3 thin films. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 789 (2005).
10Farrow, R.F.C., Harp, G.R., Marks, R.F., Rabedeau, T.A., Toney, M.F., Weller, D. and Parkin, S.S.P.: Epitaxial growth of Pt on basal-plane sapphire—a seed film for artificially layered magnetic metal structures. J. Cryst. Growth 133, 47 (1993).
11Ramanathan, S., Clemens, B.M., McIntyre, P.C. and Dahmen, U.: Microstructural study of epitaxial platinum and permalloy/platinum films grown on (0001) sapphire. Philos. Mag. A 81, 2073 (2001).
12Tunstall, W.J., Steeds, J. and Hirsch, P.B.: Effects of surface stress relaxation on electron microscope images of dislocations normal to thin metal foils. Philos. Mag. 9, 99 (1964).
13Saylor, D.M., Dasher, B.E., Sano, T. and Rohrer, G.S.: Distribution of grain boundaries in SrTiO3 as a function of five macroscopic parameters. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 87, 670 (2004).
14Tani, T., Xu, Z. and Payne, D.A.: Preferred orientations for sol-gel derived PLZT thin layers, in Ferroelectric Thin Films III, edited by Myers, E.R., Tuttle, B.A., Desu, S.B., and Larsen, P.K. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 310, Pittsburgh, PA, 1993), p. 269.
15Aoki, K., Fukuda, Y., Numata, K. and Nishimura, A.: Effects of titanium buffer layer on lead-zirconate-titanate crystallizations processes in sol-gel deposition technique. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 192 (1995).
16Muralt, P., Maeder, T., Sagalowicz, L., Hiboux, S., Scalese, S., Naumovic, D., Agostino, R.G., Xanthopoulos, N., Mathieu, H.J., Patthey, L. and Bullock, E.L.: Texture control of PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films with TiO2 seeding. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3835 (1998).
17DiBattista, M. and Schwenk, J.W.: Determination of diffusion in polycrystalline platinum thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4902 (1999).
18Fox, G.R., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Krupanidhi, S.B. and Casas, L.M.: Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. J. Mater. Res. 10, 1508 (1995).
19Recnik, A.: Twin in barium titanate. Acta Chim. Slov. 48, 1 (2001).
20Hutt, S., Köstlmeier, S. and Elsässer, C.: Density functional study of the ∑3 (111)[1-10] symmetrical tilt grain boundary in SrTiO3. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13, 3949 (2001).
21Astala, R. and Bristowe, P.D.: First-principle calculations of an oxygen deficient ∑ = 3(111)[101] grain boundary in strontium titanate. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6455 (2002).
22Canedy, C.L., Li, H., Alpay, S.P., Salamanca-Riba, L., Roytburd, A.L. and Ramesh, R.: Dielectric properties in heteroepitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films: Effect of internal stresses and dislocation-type defects. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1695 (2000).
23Myhajlenko, S., Bell, A., Ponce, F., Edwards, J.L., Wei, Y., Craigo, B., Convey, D., Li, H., Liu, R. and Kulik, J.: Optoelectronic and microstructure attributes of epitaxial SrTiO3 on Si. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014101 (2005).
24Srikant, V., Speck, J.S. and Clarke, D.R.: Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch. J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4286 (1997).


Microstructure of Epitaxial SrTiO3/Pt/Ti/ Sapphire Heterostructures

  • Steffen Schmidt (a1), Young-Woo Ok (a1), Dmitri O. Klenov (a1), Jiwei Lu (a1), Sean P. Keane (a1) and Susanne Stemmer (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed