Skip to main content Accessibility help

Growth-mode induced defects in epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films grown on single crystal LaAlO3 by a two-step PLD process

  • Dong Su (a1), Tomoaki Yamada (a2), Roman Gysel (a2), Alexander K. Tagantsev (a2), Paul Muralt (a2), Nava Setter (a2) and Nan Jiang (a3)...


We grew epitaxial SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on (001) LaAlO3 substrates via a two-step procedure using pulsed laser deposition and studied them with transmission electron microscopy in plane-view and cross-sectional samples. We found that partial misfit dislocations are the main interfacial defects, whereas planar defects are the main defects in STO films. Our results suggest that a three-dimensional island mode dominates the growth of the STO film.


Corresponding author

d)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Vendik, O.G., Hollman, E.K., Kozyrev, A.B., and Prudan, A.M.: Ferroelectric tuning of planar and bulk microwave devices. J. Supercond. 12, 325 (1999).
2.Tagantsev, A.K., Sherman, V.O., Astafiev, K.F., Venkatesh, J., and Setter, N.: Ferroelectric materials for microwave tunable applications. J. Electroceram. 11, 5 (2003).
3.Pertsev, N.A., Tagantsev, A.K., and Setter, N.: Phase transitions and strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3 epitaxial thin films. Phys. Rev. B 61, R825 (2000).
4.Canedy, C.L., Li, H., Alpay, S.P., Salamanca-Rica, L., Roytburd, A.L., and Ramesh, R.: Dielectric properties in heteroepitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films: Effect of internal stresses and dislocation-type defects. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1695 (2000).
5.Li, H., Roytburd, A.L., Alpay, S.P., Tran, T.D., Salamanca-Riba, L., and Ramesh, R.: Dependence of dielectric properties on internal stresses in epitaxial barium strontium titanate thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2354 (2001).
6.Haeni, J.H., Irvin, P., Chang, W., Uecker, R., Reiche, P., Li, Y.L., Choudhury, S., Tian, W., Hawley, M.E., Craigo, B., Tagantsev, A.K., Pan, X.Q., Streiffer, S.K., Chen, L.Q., Kirchoefer, S.W., Levy, J., and Schlom, D.G.: Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3. Nature 430, 758 (2004).
7.Park, B.H., Peterson, E.J., Jia, Q.X., Lee, J., Zeng, X., Si, W., and Xi, X.X.: Effects of very thin strain layers on dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 533 (2001).
8.Yamada, T., Astafiev, K.F., Sherman, V., Tagantsev, A.K., Muralt, P., and Setter, N.: Strain relaxation of epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films on LaAlO3 by two-step growth technique. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 142904 (2005).
9.Yamada, T., Astafiev, K.F., Sherman, V., Tagantsev, A.K., Su, D., Muralt, P., and Setter, N.: Structural and dielectric properties of strain-controlled epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films by two-step growth technique. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 54105 (2005).
10.Yamada, T., Sherman, V., Su, D., Tagantsev, A.K., Muralt, P., and Setter, N.: Growth process approaches for improved properties of tunable ferroelectric thin films. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 3753 (2007).
11.Freund, L.B. and Suresh, S.: Thin Film Materials: Stress, Defect Formation and Surface Evolution (Cambridge Press, 2004), pp. 16.
12.Su, D., Yamada, T., Sherman, V., Tagantsev, A.K., Muralt, P., and Setter, N.: Annealing effect on dislocations in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 heterostructures. J. Appl. Phys. 101, 64102 (2007).
13.Qin, Y.L., Jia, C.L., Urban, K., Hao, J.H., and Xi, X.X.: Dislocations in SrTiO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3 substrates. J. Mater. Res. 17, 3117 (2002).
14.Lu, C.J.: Type of dissociated misfit dislocation in perovskite films on LaAlO3. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2768 (2004).
15.Zhu, X., Chan, H.L.-W., Wong, K.-H., and Hesse, D.: Microstructure of compositionally graded (Ba1-xSrx)TiO3 thin films epitaxially grown on La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-covered (100) LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093503 (2005).
16.He, J.Q., Vasco, E., Dittmann, R., and Wang, R.H.: Growth dynamics and strain-relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3. Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
17.Suzuki, T., Nishi, Y., and Fujimoto, M.: Analysis of misfit relaxation in heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films. Philos. Mag. A 79, 2461 (1999).
18.Sun, H.P., Pan, X.Q., Haeni, J.H., and Schlom, D.G.: Structural evolution of dislocation half-loops in epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films during high-temperature annealing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1967 (2004).
19.Sanchez, F., Herranz, G., Infante, I.C., Fontcuberta, J., Garcia-Cuenca, M.V., Ferrater, C., and Varela, M.: Critical effects of substrate terraces and steps morphology on the growth mode of epitaxial SrRuO3 films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1981 (2004).
20.Goh, W.C., Xu, S.Y., Wang, S.J., and Ong, C.K.: Microstructure and growth mode at early growth stage of laser-ablated epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films on a SrTiO3 substrate. J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4497 (2001).
21.Jiang, J.C. and Pan, X.Q.: Microstructure and growth mechanism of epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films on (001) LaAlO3 substrates. J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6365 (2001).
22.Visinoiu, A., Alexe, M., Lee, H.N., Zakharov, D.N., Pignolet, A., Hesse, D., and Gösele, U.: Initial growth stages of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on vicinal SrTiO3 (001) substrate surfaces. J. Appl. Phys. 91, 10157 (2002).
23.Shin, J., Kalinin, S.V., Borisevich, A.Y., Plummer, E.W., and Baddorf, A.P.: Layer-by-layer and pseudo-two-dimensional growth modes for heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 films by exploiting kinetic limitations. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202901 (2007).



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed