Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Fabrication, formation mechanism and properties of three-dimensional nanoporous titanium dealloyed in metallic powders

  • Faming Zhang (a1), Ping Li (a2), Jin Yu (a2), Lili Wang (a2), Farhad Saba (a2), Ge Dai (a2) and Siyuan He (a3)...

Abstract

We present a novel route to fabricate 3D nanoporous α-Ti foams by dealloying of TiCu master alloy in solid state using Mg powders. Pure open-cell nanoporous α-Ti foams are fabricated with BET surface area of 34.4 ± 0.8 m2/g and pore size in the range of 2–50 nm. The dealloying using powders is a solid state chemical reaction process to form Cu2Mg phase and Ti/Mg nanocomposites. The constituent of Cu in the TiCu alloy was dissolved into Mg powders thanks to the kinetics of interface reaction and volume diffusion. The pore-forming mechanism is a solid-state interdiffusion process. The ligament coarsening is from 492 to 650 nm with increasing of the dealloying temperature. The hardness and elastic modulus in nanoporous α-Ti foam follow linear decay fit with ligament size increasing. Our results demonstrate a facile strategy for the fabrication of nanoporous Ti foams with novel nanostructures and tailored properties.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: fmzhang@seu.edu.cn

Footnotes

Hide All

Contributing Editor: Jürgen Eckert

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Tappan, B.C., Steiner, S.A. III, and Luther, E.P.: Nanoporous metal foams. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 49, 4544 (2010).
2. Jin, H.J., Wang, X.L., Parida, S., Wang, K., Seo, M., and Weissmuller, J.: Nanoporous Au–Pt alloys as large strain electrochemical actuators. Nano Lett. 10, 187 (2010).
3. Li, X., Chen, Q., McCue, I., Snyder, J., Crozier, P., Erlebacher, J., and Sierzdzki, K.: Dealloying of noble-metal alloy nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 14, 2569 (2014).
4. Ghosh, S.: Switching magnetic order in nanoporous Pd–Ni by electrochemical charging. J. Mater. Res. 28, 3010 (2013).
5. Qi, Z. and Weissmueller, J.: Hierarchical nested-network nanostructure by dealloying. ACS Nano 7, 5948 (2013).
6. Erlebacher, J., Aziz, M.J., Karma, A., Dimitrov, N., and Sieradzk, K.: Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying. Nature 410, 450 (2001).
7. Shin, K., Leach, K.A., Goldbach, J.T., Kim, D.H., Jho, J.Y., Tuominen, M., Hawker, C.J., and Russell, T.P.: A simple route to metal nanodots and nanoporous metal films. Nano Lett. 2, 933 (2002).
8. Naeth, O., Stephen, A., Roesler, J., and Vollertsen, F.: Structuring of nanoporous nickel-based superalloy membranes via laser etching. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209, 4739 (2009).
9. Tappan, B.C., Huynh, M.H., Hiskey, M.A., Chavez, D.E., Luther, E.P., Mang, J.T., and Son, S.F.: Ultralow-density nanostructured metal foams: combustion synthesis, morphology, and composition. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6589 (2006).
10. Qi, Z., Vainio, U., Kornowski, A., Ritter, M., Weller, H., Jin, H., and Weissmueller, J.: Porous gold with a nested-network architecture and ultrafine structure. Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 2530 (2015).
11. Thorp, J.C., Sieradzki, K., Tang, L., Crozier, P.A., Misra, A., Nastasi, M., Mitlin, D., and Picraux, S.T.: Formation of nanoporous noble metal thin films by electrochemical dealloying of Pt x Si1x . Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 033110 (2006).
12. Hakamada, M. and Mabuchi, M.: Fabrication of nanoporous palladium by dealloying and its thermal coarsening. J. Alloys Compd. 479, 326 (2009).
13. Tang, Y., Liu, Y., Lian, L., Zhou, X., and He, L.: Formation of nanoporous copper through dealloying of dual-phase Cu–Mn–Al alloy: The evolution of microstructure and composition. J. Mater. Res. 27, 2771 (2012).
14. Hakamada, M. and Mabuchi, M.: Preparation of nanoporous Ni and Ni–Cu by dealloying of rolled Ni–Mn and Ni–Cu–Mn alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 485, 583 (2009).
15. Zhang, F., Weidmann, A., Nebe, J.B., Beck, U., and Burkel, E.: Preparation, microstructures, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of TiMn alloys for biomedical applications. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., B 94, 406 (2010).
16. Wada, T., Yubuta, K., Inoue, A., and Kato, H.: Dealloying by metallic melt. Mater. Lett. 65, 1076 (2011).
17. Panagiotopoulos, N.T., Moreira Jorge, A., Rebai, I., Georgarakis, K., Botta, W.J., and Yavari, A.R.: Nanoporous titanium obtained from a spinodally decomposed Ti alloy. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 222, 26 (2016).
18. Tsuchiya, H., Berger, S., and Macak, J.M.: Self-organized porous and tubular oxide layers on TiAl alloys. Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2397 (2007).
19. Abe, H., Sato, K., Nishikawa, H., Takemoto, T., Fukuhara, M., and Inoue, A.: Dealloying of Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glass in hydrofluoric acid solution. Mater. Trans. 50, 12551258 (2009).
20. Tsuda, M., Wada, T., and Kato, H.: Kinetics of formation and coarsening of nanoporous-titanium dealloyed with Mg melt. J. Appl. Phys. 114, 113503 (2013).
21. Wada, T., Setyawan, A.D., Yubuta, K., and Kato, H.: Nano- to submicro-porous beta-Ti alloy prepared from dealloying in a metallic melt. Script. Mater. 65, 532 (2011).
22. Kim, J.W., Tsuda, M., Wada, T., Yubuta, K., Kim, S.G., and Kato, H.: Optimizing niobium dealloying with metallic melt to fabricate porous structure for electrolytic capacitors. Acta Mater. 84, 497 (2015).
23. Wada, T. and Kato, H.: Three-dimensional open-cell macroporous iron, chromium and ferritic stainless steel. Scr. Mater. 68, 723 (2013).
24. Chen-Wiegart, Y.K., Wada, T., Butakov, N., Xiao, X., De Carlo, F., Kato, H., Wang, J., Dunand, D.C., and Maire, E.: 3D morphological evolution of porous titanium by X-ray micro- and nano-tomography. J. Mater. Res. 28, 2444 (2013).
25. Dunand, D.C.: Processing of titanium foams. Adv. Eng. Mater. 6, 369 (2004).
26. Zhang, F., Otterstein, E., and Burkel, E.: Spark plasma sintering, microstructures and mechanical properties of macroporous titanium foams. Adv. Eng. Mater. 12, 863 (2010).
27. Guillon, O., Julian, J.G., Dargatz, B., Kessel, T., Schierning, G., Rathel, J., and Herrmann, M.: Field-assisted sintering technology/spark plasma sintering: Mechanisms, materials, and technology developments. Adv. Eng. Mater. 16, 830 (2014).
28. Zhang, F., Reich, M., Kessler, O., and Burkel, E.: Potential of rapid cooling spark plasma sintering for metallic materials. Mater. Today 16, 192195 (2013).
29. Takeuchi, A. and Inoue, A.: Classification of bulk metallic glasses by atomic size difference, heat of mixing and period of constituent elements and its application to characterization of the main alloying element. Mater. Trans. 46, 2817 (2005).
30. Erlebacher, J. and Seshadri, R.: Hard materials with tunable porosity. MRS Bull. 34, 561 (2009).
31. Meguro, K., O, M., and Kajihara, M.: Growth behavior of compounds due to solid-state reactive diffusion between Cu and Al. J. Mater. Sci. 47, 49554964 (2012).
32. Corcoran, Y.L., King, A.H., Lanerolle, N.D., and Kim, B.: Grain boundary diffusion and growth of titanium silicide layers on silicon. J. Electron. Mater. 19, 1177 (1990).
33. Taguchi, O., Iijima, Y., and Hirono, K.: Reaction diffusion in the Cu–Ti system. J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 54, 619 (1990).
34. Hakamada, M. and Mabuchi, M.: Mechanical strength of nanoporous gold fabricated by dealloying. Scr. Mater. 56, 1003 (2007).
35. Wada, T., Yubuta, K., and Kato, H.: Evolution of a biocontinuous nanostructure via a solid-state interfacial dealloying reaction. Scr. Mater. 118, 33 (2016).
36. Necula, B.S., Apachitei, I., Fratila-Apachitei, L.E., van Langelaan, E.J., and Duszczyk, J.: Titanium bone implants with superimposed micro/nano-scale porosity and antibacterial capability. Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 310 (2013).

Keywords

Fabrication, formation mechanism and properties of three-dimensional nanoporous titanium dealloyed in metallic powders

  • Faming Zhang (a1), Ping Li (a2), Jin Yu (a2), Lili Wang (a2), Farhad Saba (a2), Ge Dai (a2) and Siyuan He (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed