Skip to main content Accessibility help

Fabrication and characterization of flexible electrochromic membrane based on polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide

  • Yu Jiang (a1), Zhuoming Chen (a1), Binjie Xin (a1), Yan Liu (a1) and Lantian Lin (a1)...


Wearable electrochromic devices are considered as the essential components for the development of smart clothing with the intelligent sensing, actuating, and displaying functions. In this study, the electrochromic composite flexible membranes of polyaniline (PANI) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of RGO dispersion. The effects of RGO concentration on the morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity, and electrochromic behavior of the composite membranes were studied. Our experimental results show that the conductivity of PANI/RGO composite membrane increases with the increasing of RGO concentration from 0.1 to 0.25 wt%, and the highest conductivity is 3.57 S/cm. An improved electrochemical performance with good electrochromic cycle characteristic of the PANI/RGO composite can be obtained, which shows a wide color range from green to black compared with the PANI membrane that ranging from green to dark blue. This research provides a systematical investigation of flexible PANI-based electrochromic membrane, which has the potential application in the field of wearable electrochromic devices in the future.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Wang, W-Q., Wang, X-L., Xia, X-H., Yao, Z-J., Zhong, Y., and Tu, J.P.: Enhanced electrochromic and energy storage performance in mesoporous WO3 film and its application in a bi-functional smart window. Nanoscale 10, 1039 (2018).
2.Song, Y., Jian, P., Ma, Y., and Jia, L.: Recent progress on organic and polymeric electrochromic materials. Curr. Phys. Chem. 1, 216 (2011).
3.WU, K-H., Chang, Y-C., Yang, C-C., Gung, Y-J., and Yang, F-C.: Synthesis, infrared stealth and corrosion resistance of organically modified silicate-polyaniline/carbon black hybrid coatings. Eur. Polym. J. 45, 2821 (2009).
4.Honma, I., Takeda, Y., and Bae, J.M.: Protonic conducting properties of sol–gel derived organic/inorganic nanocomposites membrane doped with acidic functional molecules. MRS Proc. 120, 255 (1999).
5.Du, Y., Shen, S-Z., Yang, W-D., Donelson, R., Cai, K-F., and Casey, P-S.: Simultaneous increase in conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in a polyaniline/graphene nanosheets thermoelectric nanocomposite. Synth. Met. 161, 2688 (2012).
6.Pahal, S., Deepa, M., Bhandari, S., Sood, K.N., and Srivastava, A.K.: Electrochromism and redox switching of cobalt hexacyanoferrate–polyaniline hybrid films in a hydrophobic ionic liquid. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1064 (2010).
7.Fei, H., Xu, J., Zhang, S., Jiang, J., Yan, B., and Gu, Y.: Core/shell structured halloysite/polyaniline nanotubes with enhanced electrochromic properties. J. Mater. Chem. C 10, 1039 (2018).
8.Dinh, N., Oanh, N., Long, P.D., Bernard, M.C., and Goffb, A.H.: Electrochromic properties of TiO2 anatase thin films prepared by a dipping sol gel method. Thin Solid Films 423, 70 (2003).
9.Chu, J., Lu, D-Y., Wu, B-H., Wang, X-Q., Gong, M., Zhang, R-L., and Xiong, S-X.: Synthesis and electrochromic properties of conducting polymers: Polyaniline directly grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate via hydrothermal techniques. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 177, 70 (2017).
10.Zhang, S., Sun, G., He, Y., Fu, R., Gu, Y., and Chen, S.: Preparation, characterization and electrochromic properties of nanocellulose-based polyaniline nanocomposite films. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 16426 (2017).
11.Li, X-X., Zhao, L., Ma, D-Y., and Zeng, Y-R.: Polyaniline/carbon nanotube electrochromic films: Electrochemical polymerization and characterization. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 307, 1757 (2018).
12.Jesús, D.S., Alberto, R.A., Eduardo, V.L., JoséM, H.A., Isabel, G.M., Humberto, V.T., Luis, C.O., Pedro, R., and Miquel, G.: Development and characterization of a flexible electrochromic device based on polyaniline and enzymatically synthesized poly(gallic acid). Synth. Met. 223, 43 (2017).
13.Sheng, K., Bai, H., Sun, Y., Li, C., and Shi, G-Q.: Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene/polyaniline multilayer films and their application for electrochromic devices. Polymer 52, 5567 (2011).
14.Gordana, C.M.: Recent advances in polyaniline research: Polymerization mechanisms, structural aspects, properties and applications. Synth. Met. 177, 1 (2013).
15.Baker, C.O., Huang, X., Nelson, W., and Kaner, R.B.: Polyaniline nanofibers: Broadening applications for conducting polymers. Chem. Soc. Rev. 46, 1510 (2017).
16.Lu, X., Dou, H., Yang, S., Hao, L., Zhang, L., and Shen, L.: Fabrication and electrochemical capacitance of hierarchical graphene/polyaniline/carbon nanotube ternary composite film. Electrochim. Acta 56, 9224 (2011).
17.Bhadra, J., Al-Thani, N.J., Madi, N.K., and Al-Maadeed, M.A.: Effects of aniline concentrations on the electrical and mechanical properties of polyaniline polyvinyl alcohol blends. Arabian J. Chem. 10, 664 (2015).
18.Zhang, W-L., Park, B.J., and Choi, H.J.: Colloidal graphene oxide/polyaniline nanocomposite and its electrorheology. Chem. Commun. 46, 5596 (2010).
19.Jia, Q., Wang, W., Zhao, J., Xiao, J., Lu, L., and Fan, H.: Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/polyaniline/graphene oxide bouquet-like composites for enhanced microwave absorption performance. J. Alloys Compd. 710, 717 (2017).
20.Laith, A.M., Koo, S., Kourosh, K.Z., Plessis, J.D., Han, S.H., Kojima, R.W., Kaner, R.B., Li, D., Gou, X.L., Ippolito, S.J., and Wlodarski, W.: Graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for hydrogen sensing. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16168 (2010).
21.Yan, C., Kanaththage, Y., Short, W.R., Gibson, C.T., and Zou, L.: Graphene/Polyaniline nanocomposite as electrode material for membrane capacitive deionization. Desalination 344, 274 (2014).
22.Kai, Q., Hou, R., Zaman, S., Bao, Y.X., and Duan, H.: A core/shell structured tubular graphene nanoflakes-coated polypyrrole hybrid for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 3913 (2018).
23.Balik, C.M., Tripathy, S.K., and Hopfinger, A.J.: Epitaxial morphologies of polyoxymethylene. I. Electron microscopy. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 20, 2017 (2010).
24.Cheng, S., Chen, X., Hsuan, Y.G., and Christopher, Y.L.: Reduced graphene oxide-induced polyethylene crystallization in solution and nanocomposites. Macromolecules 45, 933 (2011).
25.Rose, A., Guru Prasad, K., Sakthivel, T., Gunasekaran, V., Maiyalagan, T., and Vijayakumar, T.: Electrochemical analysis of graphene oxide/polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibers for supercapacitor applications. Appl. Surf. Sci. 449, 551 (2018).
26.Lee, C.W., Choi, S.H., Jeong, H.M., Rhyu, S.H., Chi, K.W., and Yoon, K.S.: Synthesis of tailor-made nanoporous polyaniline derived with PVA/alkaline metal system for metal complexation. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 2497 (2011).
27.Yao, P., Xu, J., Wang, Y-X., He, F., and Wu, Y.: Preparation and characterization of soluble and DBSA doped polyaniline grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes nano-composite. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 20, 517 (2009).
28.Chen, C-H., Mao, C-F., Su, S.F., and Fahn, Y.Y.: Preparation and characterization of conductive poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyaniline doped by dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (PVA/PANDB) blend films. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 103, 3415 (2007).
29.Salimikia, I., Heydari, R., and Yazdankhah, F.: Polyaniline/graphene oxide nanocomposite as a sorbent for extraction and determination of nicotine using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 15, 1593 (2018).
30.Lu, Z., Zhao, L., Xu, Y-X., Qiu, T-F., Zhi, L-J., and Shi, G-Q.: Polyaniline electrochromic devices with transparent graphene electrodes. Electrochim. Acta 55, 491 (2010).
31.Tian, Y., Zhang, X., Dou, S., Zhang, L., Zhang, H., Lv, H., Wang, L., Zhao, J., and Li, Y.: A comprehensive study of electrochromic device with variable infrared emissivity based on polyaniline conducting polymer. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 170, 120 (2017).
32.Chotsuwan, C., Asawapirom, U., Shimoi, Y., Akiyama, H., Ngamaroonchote, A., Jiemsakul, T., and Jiramitmongkonal, K.: Investigation of the electrochromic properties of tri-block polyaniline-polythiophene-polyaniline under visible light. Synth. Met. 226, 80 (2017).
33.Kulesza, P.J., Miecznikowski, K., Chojak, M., Malik, M.A., Zamponi, S., and Marassi, R.: Electrochromic features of hybrid films composed of polyaniline and metal hexacyanoferrate. Electrochim. Acta 46, 4371 (2002).
34.Firat, Y.E. and Peksoz, A.: Electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline/inorganic salt binary nanofiber thin films for electrochromic applications. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28, 3515 (2017).


Fabrication and characterization of flexible electrochromic membrane based on polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide

  • Yu Jiang (a1), Zhuoming Chen (a1), Binjie Xin (a1), Yan Liu (a1) and Lantian Lin (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed