Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Electrohydrodynamic-jetting (EHD-jet) 3D-printed functionally graded scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

  • Sanjairaj Vijayavenkataraman (a1), Shuo Zhang (a1), Wen Feng Lu (a1) and Jerry Ying Hsi Fuh (a1)

Abstract

Biomimicry is a desirable quality of tissue engineering scaffolds. While most of the scaffolds reported in the literature contain a single pore size or porosity, the native biological tissues such as cartilage and skin have a layered architecture with zone-specific pore size and mechanical properties. Thus, there is a need for functionally graded scaffolds (FGS). EHD-jet 3D printing is a high-resolution process and a variety of polymer solutions can be processed into 3D porous scaffolds at ease, overcoming the limitations of other 3D printing methods (SLS, stereolithography, and FDM) in terms of resolution and limited material choice. In this paper, a novel proof of concept study on fabrication of porous polycaprolactone-based FGS by using EHD-jet 3D printing technology is presented. Organomorphic scaffolds, multiculture systems, interfacial tissue engineering, and in vitro cancer metastasis models are some of the futuristic applications of these polymeric FGS.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: vijayavenkataraman@u.nus.edu

References

Hide All
1.Vijayavenkataraman, S., Lu, W., and Fuh, J.: 3D bioprinting of skin: A state-of-the-art review on modelling, materials, and processes. Biofabrication 8, 032001 (2016).
2.Vijayavenkataraman, S., Lu, W., and Fuh, J.: 3D bioprinting—An ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA) framework. Bioprinting 1, 11 (2016).
3.Hollister, S.J.: Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering. Nat. Mater. 4, 518 (2005).
4.O’brien, F.J.: Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering. Mater. Today 14, 88 (2011).
5.Vijayavenkataraman, S., Shuo, Z., Fuh, J.Y., and Lu, W.F.: Design of three-dimensional scaffolds with tunable matrix stiffness for directing stem cell lineage specification: An in silico study. Bioengineering 4, 66 (2017).
6.Leong, K., Chua, C., Sudarmadji, N., and Yeong, W.: Engineering functionally graded tissue engineering scaffolds. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 1, 140 (2008).
7.Woodfield, T., Blitterswijk, C.V., Wijn, J.D., Sims, T., Hollander, A., and Riesle, J.: Polymer scaffolds fabricated with pore-size gradients as a model for studying the zonal organization within tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. Tissue Eng. 11, 1297 (2005).
8.Sharma, B., Williams, C.G., Kim, T.K., Sun, D., Malik, A., Khan, M., Leong, K., and Elisseeff, J.H.: Designing zonal organization into tissue-engineered cartilage. Tissue Eng. 13, 405 (2007).
9.Bracaglia, L.G., Smith, B.T., Watson, E., Arumugasaamy, N., Mikos, A.G., and Fisher, J.P.: 3D printing for the design and fabrication of polymer-based gradient scaffolds. Acta Biomater. 56, 313 (2017).
10.Miao, X. and Sun, D.: Graded/gradient porous biomaterials. Materials 3, 26 (2009).
11.Ma, P.X.: Scaffolds for tissue fabrication. Mater. Today 7, 30 (2004).
12.Lu, T., Li, Y., and Chen, T.: Techniques for fabrication and construction of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Int. J. Nanomed. 8, 337 (2013).
13.Thieme, M., Wieters, K-P., Bergner, F., Scharnweber, D., Worch, H., Ndop, J., Kim, T., and Grill, W.: Titanium powder sintering for preparation of a porous functionally graded material destined for orthopaedic implants. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med. 12, 225 (2001).
14.Miao, X., Hu, Y., Liu, J., Tio, B., Cheang, P., and Khor, K.A.: Highly interconnected and functionally graded porous bioceramics. In Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 240, edited by Ben-Nissan, B., Sher, D., and Walsh, W.. (Trans Tech Publications, Zurich, Switzerland, 2003); p. 595.
15.Macchetta, A., Turner, I.G., and Bowen, C.R.: Fabrication of HA/TCP scaffolds with a graded and porous structure using a camphene-based freeze-casting method. Acta Biomater. 5, 1319 (2009).
16.Suk, M-J., Choi, S-I., Kim, J-S., Do Kim, Y., and Kwon, Y-S.: Fabrication of a porous material with a porosity gradient by a pulsed electric current sintering process. Met. Mater. Int. 9, 599 (2003).
17.An, J., Teoh, J.E.M., Suntornnond, R., and Chua, C.K.: Design and 3D printing of scaffolds and tissues. Engineering 1, 261 (2015).
18.Do, A.V., Khorsand, B., Geary, S.M., and Salem, A.K.: 3D printing of scaffolds for tissue regeneration applications. Adv. Healthcare Mater. 4, 1742 (2015).
19.Liu, F-H.: Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation. Appl. Surf. Sci. 297, 1 (2014).
20.Sabnis, A., Rahimi, M., Chapman, C., and Nguyen, K.T.: Cytocompatibility studies of an in situ photopolymerized thermoresponsive hydrogel nanoparticle system using human aortic smooth muscle cells. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part A 91, 52 (2009).
21.Vijayavenkataraman, S.: A perspective on bioprinting ethics. Artif. Organs 40, 1033 (2016).
22.Hutmacher, D.W., Schantz, T., Zein, I., Ng, K.W., Teoh, S.H., and Tan, K.C.: Mechanical properties and cell cultural response of polycaprolactone scaffolds designed and fabricated via fused deposition modeling. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part A 55, 203 (2001).
23.Park, A., Wu, B., and Griffith, L.G.: Integration of surface modification and 3D fabrication techniques to prepare patterned poly(L-lactide) substrates allowing regionally selective cell adhesion. J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 9, 89 (1998).
24.Serra, T., Ortiz-Hernandez, M., Engel, E., Planell, J.A., and Navarro, M.: Relevance of PEG in PLA-based blends for tissue engineering 3D-printed scaffolds. Mater. Sci. Eng., C 38, 55 (2014).
25.Khojasteh, A., Behnia, H., Hosseini, F.S., Dehghan, M.M., Abbasnia, P., and Abbas, F.M.: The effect of PCL–TCP scaffold loaded with mesenchymal stem cells on vertical bone augmentation in dog mandible: A preliminary report. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B 101, 848 (2013).
26.Xu, N., Ye, X., Wei, D., Zhong, J., Chen, Y., Xu, G., and He, D.: 3D artificial bones for bone repair prepared by computed tomography-guided fused deposition modeling for bone repair. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 14952 (2014).
27.Liu, H., Vijayavenkataraman, S., Wang, D., Jing, L., Sun, J., and He, K.: Influence of electrohydrodynamic jetting parameters on the morphology of PCL scaffolds. Int. J. Bioprint. 3, 72 (2017).
28.Sun, J., Vijayavenkataraman, S., and Liu, H.: An overview of scaffold design and fabrication technology for engineered knee meniscus. Materials 10, 29 (2017).
29.Wang, H., Vijayavenkataraman, S., Wu, Y., Shu, Z., Sun, J., and Hsi, J.F.Y.: Investigation of process parameters of electrohydro-dynamic jetting for 3D printed PCL fibrous scaffolds with complex geometries. Int. J. Bioprint. 2, 6371 (2016).
30.Uth, N., Mueller, J., Smucker, B., and Yousefi, A-M.: Validation of scaffold design optimization in bone tissue engineering: Finite element modeling versus designed experiments. Biofabrication 9, 015023 (2017).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed