Skip to main content Accessibility help

The effect of composition on the growth and morphology of zeolite A in solution

  • Bovornlak Oonkhanond (a1) and Michael E. Mullins (a2)


The zeolite LTA (Linde type A) framework is composed of an equal amount of silica and alumina arranged in a three-dimension tetrahedral structure. This high alumina content zeolite possesses a strong negative surface charge in a basic solution due to the substitution of aluminum atoms into a SiO4 tetrahedral structure making it difficult to form a continuous layer in solution. Synthesis parameters such as synthesis duration, chemical composition, and synthesis temperature were varied. The crystallization kinetics was carried out using the particle size measurement, percent crystallinity from x-ray diffraction analysis, infrared absorption of tetrahedra using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the exponential growth model. The results showed that the zeolite A crystallization in a solution depends on the chemical kinetics of the zeolite formation, surface charge of the substrate, and the mass transfer in the solution.



Hide All
1Breck, D.W.Zeolite Molecular Sieves; Structure, Chemistry, and Use (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1974), pp. 8390.
2Zhdanov, S.P., in Advance in Chemistry Series 101 , edited by Gould, R.F. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1971), pp. 2043.
3Oonkhanond, B. and Mullins, M.E.: The preparation and analysis of zeolite ZSM-5 membranes on porous alumina supports. J. Mem. Sci. 194, 3 (2001).
4Oonkhanond, B. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan Technological University (2003).
5Boudreau, L.C., Kuck, J.A. and Tsapatsis, M.: Deposition of oriented zeolite a films: In situ and secondary growth. J. Membr. Sci. 152, 41 (1999).
6Charnell, J.F.: Gel Growth of large crystals of sodium A and sodium X zeolites. J. Cryst. Growth 8, 291 (1971).
7Sand, L.B., Sacco, A. Jr.Thompson, R.W. and Dixon, A.G.: Large zeolite crystals: Their potential growth in space. Zeolites 7, 387 (1987).
8Kerr, G.T.: Chemistry of Crystalline Aluminosilicates. I. Factors Affecting the Formation of Zeolite A. Journal of Physical Chemical Chemistry 70, 1047 (1966).
9Ciric, J.: Kinetics of Zeolite A Crystallization. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 28, 315 (1968).
10Khamskii, E.V.. Crystallization from Solutions , Consultants Bureau (1969), pp.15–26.
11Barrer, R.M. Hydrothermal Chemistry of Zeolites (Academic Press, New York, 1982), pp. 133185.
12Zhdanov, S.P. and Samulevich, N.N., in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Zeolite, (Heyden, London and Philadelphia, 1980), pp. 7584.
13Turnbull, D., in Solid State Physics Vol. 3 , edited by Seitz, F. and Turnbull, D. (Academic Press, London and New York, 1956), pp. 225306.
14Meise, W. and Schwochow, F.E., In Molecular Sieves , edited by Meier, W.M. and Uytterhoeven, J. B., In, ACSChemistry Series 121 (1973), pp. 169178.
15Thompson, R.W. and Huber, M.J.: T. Crvst. Gr. 56, 711 (1982).
16Flanigen, E.M., Khatami, H., and Szymanski, H.A., in Advance in Chemistry Series 101 (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1971), pp. 201228.
17Gutsze, A., Kornatowski, J., Neels, H., Schmitz, W., and Finger, G: Some observations on forms of NaA and NaX zeolite growing in the presence of triethanolamine. Crystal Res. Technol. 20, 151158 (1985).
18Breck, D.W. and Flanigen, E.M., in Molecular Sieves (Society of Chemical Industry, 1967), pp. 4761.
19Yanagida, R.Y., Amaro, A.A. and Seff, K.: A redetermination of the crystal structure of dehydrated zeolite 4A. J. Phys. Chem. 77 805–809 (1973).
20 International Zeolite Association: database of zeolite structures,



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed