Skip to main content Accessibility help

Boron nitride nanotube reinforced titanium metal matrix composites with excellent high-temperature performance

  • Md Mahedi Hasan Bhuiyan (a1), Jiangting Wang (a1), Lu Hua Li (a1), Peter Hodgson (a1), Arvind Agarwal (a2), Ma Qian (a3) and Ying Chen (a1)...


Boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) reinforced titanium (Ti) matrix composites were prepared using the cold press-and-sinter method. In the composite sintered at 800 °C for 1 h, BNNTs were homogeneously distributed in the Ti matrix and restricted the growth of Ti grains. The compressive strength of the as-sintered Ti–4 vol% BNNT composite achieved 985 MPa at room temperature versus 678 MPa without the BNNT reinforcements. The highest compressive strength of 277 MPa at 500 °C was obtained from the Ti–5 vol% BNNT composite. When sintered at 1000 °C, chemical reactions occurred between Ti and BNNTs leading to the formation of the interfacial TiB phase, which serves as a strong binding between BNNTs and the Ti matrix. The reinforcements were attributed by a mixture of BNNTs and TiB after sintering at 1000 °C for 3 h. However, no BNNT was observed in the microstructure after sintering at 1100 °C for 3 h due to complete transformation into TiB whiskers.


Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All

Contributing Editor: Yang-T. Cheng



Hide All
1. Lütjering, G. and Williams, J.C.: Titanium, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007).
2. A.S.M.I.H. Committee: ASM Handbook: Vol. 02-Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials (ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1990).
3. Froes, F.H. and Eylon, D.: Powder metallurgy of titanium alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 35, 162184 (1990).
4. Froes, F.H., Mashl, S.J., Hebeisen, J.C., Moxson, V.S., and Duz, V.A.: The technologies of titanium powder metallurgy. JOM 56, 4648 (2004).
5. Ward-Close, C.M., Winstone, M.R., and Partridge, P.G.: Developments in the processing of titanium alloy metal matrix composites. Mater. Des. 15, 6777 (1994).
6. Williams, J.: Thermo-mechanical processing of high-performance Ti alloys: Recent progress and future needs. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 117, 370373 (2001).
7. Williams, J.C.: Alternate materials choices—Some challenges to the increased use of Ti alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 263, 107111 (1999).
8. Rawal, S.: Metal-matrix composites for space applications. JOM 53, 1417 (2001).
9. Mason, R.B., Gintert, L.A., Singleton, M.F., and Skelton, D.: Composite for military equipment. Adv. Mater. Processes 162, 3739 (2004).
10. Montgomery, J., Wells, M.H., Roopchand, B., and Ogilvy, J.: Low-cost titanium armors for combat vehicles. JOM 49, 4547 (1997).
11. Saito, T.: The automotive application of discontinuously reinforced TiB–Ti composites. JOM 56, 3336 (2004).
12. Saito, T., Takamiya, H., and Furuta, T.: Thermomechanical properties of P/M β titanium metal matrix composite. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 243, 273278 (1998).
13. Bakshi, S., Lahiri, D., and Agarwal, A.: Carbon nanotube reinforced metal matrix composites—A review. Int. Mater. Rev. 55, 4164 (2010).
14. Kondoh, K., Threrujirapapong, T., Umeda, J., and Fugetsu, B.: High-temperature properties of extruded titanium composites fabricated from carbon nanotubes coated titanium powder by spark plasma sintering and hot extrusion. Compos. Sci. Technol. 72, 12911297 (2012).
15. Xue, F., Jiehe, S., Yan, F., and Wei, C.: Preparation and elevated temperature compressive properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced Ti composites. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 527, 15861589 (2010).
16. Li, J., Wang, L., Qin, J., Chen, Y., Lu, W., and Zhang, D.: Thermal stability of in situ synthesized (TiB + La2O3)/Ti composite. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528, 48834887 (2011).
17. Vreeling, J.A., Ocelík, V., and De Hosson, J.T.M.: Ti–6Al–4V strengthened by laser melt injection of WCp particles. Acta Mater. 50, 49134924 (2002).
18. Luo, S.D., Li, Q., Tian, J., Wang, C., Yan, M., Schaffer, G.B., and Qian, M.: Self-assembled, aligned TiC nanoplatelet-reinforced titanium composites with outstanding compressive properties. Scr. Mater. 69, 2932 (2013).
19. Ishigami, M., Aloni, S., and Zettl, A.: Properties of boron nitride nanotubes. In Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy and Related Techniques: 12th International Conference, Kemerink, P.M.K.a.M., ed. (AIP Conference Proceedings American Institiute of Physics, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 2003); pp. 9499.
20. Chopra, N.G. and Zettl, A.: Measurement of the elastic modulus of a multi-wall boron nitride nanotube. Solid State Commun. 105, 297300 (1998).
21. Suryavanshi, A.P., Yu, M-F., Wen, J., Tang, C., and Bando, Y.: Elastic modulus and resonance behavior of boron nitride nanotubes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 25272529 (2004).
22. Shen, H.: Thermal-conductivity and tensile-properties of BN, SiC and Ge nanotubes. Comput. Mater. Sci. 47, 220224 (2009).
23. Chen, Y., Zou, J., Campbell, S.J., and Caer, G.L.: Boron nitride nanotubes: Pronounced resistance to oxidation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 24302432 (2004).
24. Golberg, D., Bando, Y., Tang, C., and Zni, C.: Boron nitride nanotubes. Adv. Mater. 19, 24132432 (2007).
25. Zhi, C., Bando, Y., Tang, C., Honda, S., Sato, K., Kuwahara, H., and Golberg, D.: Characteristics of boron nitride nanotube–polyaniline composites. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 79297932 (2005).
26. Zhi, C., Bando, Y., Tang, C., Honda, S., Kuwara, H., and Golberg, D.: Boron nitride nanotubes/polystyrene composites. J. Mater. Res. 21, 27942800 (2006).
27. Ravichandran, J., Manoj, A.G., Liu, J., Manna, I., and Carroll, D.L.: A novel polymer nanotube composite for photovoltaic packaging applications. Nanotechnology 19, 085712 (2008).
28. Terao, T., Zhi, C., Bando, Y., Mitome, M., Tang, C., and Golberg, D.: Alignment of boron nitride nanotubes in polymeric composite films for thermal conductivity improvement. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 43404344 (2010).
29. Zhi, C., Bando, Y., Terao, T., Tang, C., Kuwahara, H., and Golberg, D.: Towards thermoconductive, electrically insulating polymeric composites with boron nitride nanotubes as fillers. Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 18571862 (2009).
30. Zhi, C.Y., Bando, Y., Wang, W.L., Tang, C.C., Kuwahara, H., and Golberg, D.: Mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate-BN nanotube composites. J. Nanomater. 2008, 642036 (2008).
31. Li, L., Chen, Y., and Stachurski, Z.H.: Boron nitride nanotube reinforced polyurethane composites. Prog. Nat. Sci. 23, 170173 (2013).
32. Bansal, N.P., Hurst, J.B., and Choi, S.R.: Boron nitride nanotubes-reinforced glass composites. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 388390 (2006).
33. Choi, S.R., Bansal, N.P., and Garg, A.: Mechanical and microstructural characterization of boron nitride nanotubes-reinforced SOFC seal glass composite. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 460–461, 509515 (2007).
34. Lahiri, D., Hadjikhani, A., Zhang, C., Xing, T., Li, L.H., Chen, Y., and Agarwal, A.: Boron nitride nanotubes reinforced aluminum composites prepared by spark plasma sintering: Microstructure, mechanical properties and deformation behavior. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 574, 149156 (2013).
35. Singhal, S.K., Srivastava, A.K., Pasricha, R., and Mathur, R.B.: Fabrication of Al-matrix composites reinforced with amino functionalized boron nitride nanotubes. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 51795186 (2011).
36. Yamaguchi, M., Pakdel, A., Zhi, C., Bando, Y., Tang, D.M., Faerstein, K., Shtansky, D., and Golberg, D.: Utilization of multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes for the reinforcement of lightweight aluminum ribbons. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8, 3 (2013).
37. Yamaguchi, M., Bernhardt, J., Faerstein, K., Shtansky, D., Bando, Y., Golovin, I.S., Sinning, H-R., and Golberg, D.: Fabrication and characteristics of melt-spun Al ribbons reinforced with nano/micro-BN phases. Acta Mater. 61, 76047615 (2013).
38. Yamaguchi, M., Meng, F., Firestein, K., Tsuchiya, K., and Golberg, D.: Powder metallurgy routes toward aluminum boron nitride nanotube composites, their morphologies, structures and mechanical properties. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 604, 917 (2014).
39. Patel, R.B., Liu, J., Eng, J., and Iqbal, Z.: One-step CVD synthesis of a boron nitride nanotube–iron composite. J. Mater. Res. 26, 1332 (2011).
40. Lahiri, D., Singh, V., Li, L.H., Xing, T., Seal, S., Chen, Y., and Agarwal, A.: Insight into reactions and interface between boron nitride nanotube and aluminum. J. Mater. Res. 27, 27602770 (2012).
41. Bhuiyan, M.M.H., Li, L.H., Wang, J., Hodgson, P., and Chen, Y.: Interfacial reactions between titanium and boron nitride nanotubes. Scr. Mater. 127, 108112 (2017).
42. Chen, Y., Fitz Gerald, J., Williams, J.S., and Bulcock, S.: Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes at low temperatures using reactive ball milling. Chem. Phys. Lett. 299, 260264 (1999).
43. Lahiri, D., Rouzand, F., Richard, T., Keshri, A.K., Bakshi, S.R., Kos, L., and Agarwal, A.: Boron nitride nanotube reinforced polylactide-polycaprolactone copolymer composite: Mechanical properties and cytocompatibility with osteoblasts and macrophages in vitro . Acta Biomater. 6, 35243533 (2010).
44. Feng, H.B., Jia, D.C., Zhou, Y., and Huo, J.: Microstructural characterisation of in situ TiB/Ti matrix composites prepared by mechanical alloying and hot pressing. Mater. Sci. Technol. 20, 12051210 (2004).
45. Feng, H., Zhou, Y., Jia, D., and Meng, Q.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ TiB reinforced titanium matrix composites based on Ti–FeMo–B prepared by spark plasma sintering. Compos. Sci. Technol. 64, 24952500 (2004).
46. Tjong, S.C. and Mai, Y-W.: Processing-structure-property aspects of particulate- and whisker-reinforced titanium matrix composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 68, 583601 (2008).
47. Feng, X., Sui, J., and Cai, W.: Processing of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced TiNi composites by hot pressed sintering. J. Compos. Mater. 45, 15531557 (2011).


Boron nitride nanotube reinforced titanium metal matrix composites with excellent high-temperature performance

  • Md Mahedi Hasan Bhuiyan (a1), Jiangting Wang (a1), Lu Hua Li (a1), Peter Hodgson (a1), Arvind Agarwal (a2), Ma Qian (a3) and Ying Chen (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed