Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Causes and consequences of downsizing: Towards an integrative framework*

  • Franco Gandolfi (a1) and Magnus Hansson (a2)

Abstract

The business literature on the causes and consequences of downsizing has grown significantly over the last three decades. A multitude of causes has been identified. Downsizing is sometimes seen primarily as a cost-reducing response to various crises and external factors over which management has little or no control. Others see downsizing as a strategic management initiative in its own right. A considerable body of literature indicates workforce reductions often lead to negative financial and operational outcomes for the downsizing firm as well as negative psychological outcomes for victims, survivors, and executioners. This research paper represents a literature review on the causes and consequences of downsizing. It addresses a diverse body of literature and suggests an integrative framework on the typical causes and consequences of downsizing as well as outlines some challenges ahead for researchers seeking to advance the knowledge of downsizing.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Dedicated to Craig R Littler.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Aldrich, H. E., & Auster, E. R. (1986). Even dwarfs start small: Liabilities of age and size and their strategic implications. In Staw, B. M. & Cummings, L. L. (Eds.), Research in organization behavior (pp. 165198). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Allen, R. K. (1997). Lean and mean: Workforce 2000 in America. Journal of Workplace Learning, 9(1), 3442.
Allen, T. D., Freeman, D. M., Russell, J. E. A., Reizenstein, R. C., & Rentz, J. O. (2001). Survivor reactions to organizational downsizing: Does time ease the pain? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(2), 145164.
Altman, E. I. (1971). Corporate bankruptcy in America. Lexington, MA: Heath.
Amundson, N., Borgen, W., Jordan, S., & Erlebach, A. (2004). Survivors of downsizing: Helpful and hindering experiences. The Career Development Quarterly, 52, 256271.
Anthony, W. P., Perrewe, P. L., & Kacmaar, K. M. (1996). Strategic human resource management (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Dryden.
Appelbaum, S. H., Delage, C., Labibb, N., & Gualt, G. (1997). The survivor syndrome: Aftermath of downsizing. Career Development International, 2(6), 137146.
Appelbaum, S. H., & Donia, M. (2001). The realistic downsizing preview: A management intervention in the prevention of survivor syndrome (Part I). Career Development International, 6(1), 519.
Appelbaum, S. H., Everard, A., & Hung, L. (1999a). Strategic downsizing: Critical success factors. Management Decision, 37(7), 535559.
Appelbaum, S. H., Lavigne-Schmidt, S., Peytchev, M., & Shapiro, B. (1999b). Downsizing: Measuring the cost of failure. The Journal of Management Development, 18(5), 436455.
Appelbaum, S. H., Simpson, R., & Shapiro, B. (1987). The tough test of downsizing. Organizational Dynamics, 16(2), 6879.
Atwood, J., Coke, E., Cooper, C., & Loria, K. (1995). Has downsizing gone too far? Jacksonville, FL: University of North Florida, MBA Research Project 6065.
Axmith, M. (1995). 1995 dismissal practices survey. Toronto: Murray Axmith.
Aziz, A., Emanuel, D. C., & Lawson, G. H. (1988). Bankruptcy prediction – an investigation of cash flow based models. Journal of Management Studies, 25, 419437.
Barker, V. L., & Duhaime, I. M. (1997). Strategic change in turnaround process: Theory and empirical evidence. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 1327.
Barker, V. L., & Mone, M. A. (1994). Retrenchment: Cause of turnaround or consequence of decline. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 395405.
Beaumont, P. B., & Harris, R. I. D. (2003). Internal wage structures and organizational performance. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 41, 5370.
Beylerian, M., & Kleiner, B. H. (2003). The downsized workplace. Management Research News, 26, 24.
Brockner, J. (1988). The effects of layoffs on survivors: Research theory and practice. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 213255.
Brockner, J. (1992). Managing the effects of lay-offs on survivors. California Management Review, 34(2), 928.
Brockner, J., Davy, J., & Carter, C. (1985). Layoffs, self-esteem and survivor guilt: Motivational, affective, and attitudinal consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 16, 229244.
Brockner, J., Greenberg, J., Brockner, A., Bortz, J, Davy, J., & Carter, C. (1986a). Layoffs, equity theory, and work performance: Further evidence of the impact of survivor guilt. Academy of Management Journal, 26(2), 373384.
Brockner, J., Greenberg, J., Brockner, A., Bortz, J., Davy, J., & Carter, C. (1986b). Layoffs, equity theory and work motivation: Further evidence for the impact of survivor guilt. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 373384.
Brockner, J., Greenberg, J., & Grover, S. (1988). The impact of layoffs on survivors: Insights from interpersonal and organizational justice theory. In Carrol, J. (Ed.), Advances in applied social psychology: Business settings (pp. 4575). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brockner, J., Grover, S., & Blonder, M. (1988). Predictors of survivors' job involvement following layoffs: A field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 436442.
Brockner, J., Grover, S., Reed, T. F., & DeWitt, R. E. (1992). Layoffs, job insecurity, and survivors' work effort: Evidence of an inverted-U relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 35(2), 413425.
Brockner, J., Grover, S., Reed, T., DeWitt, R., & O'Malley, M. (1987). Survivors' reactions to layoffs: We get by with a little help for our friends. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 526541.
Budros, A. (1997). The new capitalism and organizational rationality: The adoption of downsizing programs. Social Forces, 76(1), 229250.
Budros, A. (1999). A conceptual framework for analyzing why organizations downsize. Organization Science, 10(1), 6983.
Budros, A. (2002). The mean and lean firm of downsizing: Causes of involuntary and voluntary downsizing strategies. Sociological Forum, 17(2), 307342.
Budros, A. (2004). Causes of early and later organizational adoption: The case of corporate downsizing. Sociological Inquiry, 74(3), 355380.
Burke, R. J., & Cooper, C. L. (2000). The new organizational reality: Transition and renewal. In Burke, R. J. & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.), The organization in crisis (pp. 319). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Burke, R. J., & Greenglass, E. R. (2000). Organizational restructuring: Identifying effective hospital downsizing processes. In Burke, R. J. & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.), The organization in crisis (pp. 284303). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (1979). Social paradigms and organisational analysis – Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Lancaster, UK: Ashgate.
Cameron, K. S. (1994). Strategies for successful organizational downsizing. Human Resource Management, 33(2), 189211.
Cameron, K. S. (1998). Strategic organizational downsizing: An extreme case. In Cooper, C. L. & Rousseau, D. (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 185229). New York: John Wiley.
Cameron, K. S., Freeman, S. J., & Mishra, A. K. (1991). Best practices in white-collar downsizing: Managing contradictions. Academy of Management Executive, 5(3), 5773.
Cameron, K. S., Freeman, S. J., & Mishra, A. K. (1993). Downsizing and redesigning organizations. In Huber, G. and Glick, W. (Eds.), Organizational change and redesign (pp. 1963). New York: Oxford University Press.
Cameron, K. S., Sutton, R. I., & Whetten, D. A. (Eds.). (1988). Readings in organizational decline: Frameworks, research and prescriptions. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Cameron, K. S., Whetten, D. A., & Kim, M. U. (1987). Organizational dysfunctions of decline. Academy of Management Journal, 30, 126137.
Campbell-Janison, F., Worrall, L., & Cooper, C. (2001). Downsizing in Britain and its effects on survivors and their organizations. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 14(1), 3558.
Cascio, W. F. (1991). Costing human resources. PWS/Kent.
Cascio, W. F. (1993). Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned? Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 95104.
Cascio, W. F. (1998). Applied psychology in human resource management (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cascio, W. F. (2003). Responsible restructuring: Seeing employees as assets, not costs. Ivey Business Journal Online, 11 2003, 15.
Cascio, W. F., Young, C., & Morris, J. (1997). Financial consequences of employment change decisions in major U.S. corporations. Academy of Management Journal, 40(5), 11751189.
Caulkin, S. (1995). The new avengers – years of corporate lip services to the importance of people is finally catching up: Payment is now due in full. Management Today, 11 1995, 4852.
Chadwick, C., Hunter, L., & Walston, S. (2004). Effects of downsizing practices on the performance of hospitals. Strategic Management Journal, 25(5), 405420.
Chalos, P., & Chen, C. J. P. (2002). Employee downsizing strategies: Market reaction and post announcement financial performance. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 29(5), 847870.
Chopra, A. (2006). Survival. Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, August 2006.
Clair, J. A., & Dufresne, R. L. (2004). Playing the grim reaper: How employees experience carrying out a downsizing. Human Relations, 57(12), 15971625.
Crainer, S., & Obleng, E. (1995). Re-engineering: Overview. In Crainger, F. T. Stuart (Ed.), The financial times handbook of management (pp. 231241). Marstons Mills, MA: Pitman.
Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. (1991). The impact on economic performance of a transformation in workplace relations. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 44(2), 241260.
Datta, D. K., Guthrie, J. P., Basuil, D., & Pandey, A. (2010). Causes and effects of employee downsizing: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 36(1), 281348.
Dawkins, P., Littler, C. R., Valenzuela, M. R., & Jensen, B. (1999). The contours of restructuring & downsizing in Australia. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, Melbourne University.
De Meuse, K. P., Bergmann, T. J., Vanderheiden, P. A., & Roraff, C. E. (2004). New evidence regarding organizational downsizing and a firm's financial performance: A long-term analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16, 155177.
De Meuse, K. P., & Marks, M. L. (2003). Resizing the organization. Managing layoffs, divestitures, and closings. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
De Meuse, K. P., Vanderheiden, P. A., & Bergmann, T. J. (1994). Announced layoffs: Their effect on corporate financial performance. Human Resource Management, 33(4), 509530.
Deffree, S. (2007). Motorola layoffs reach 10,000, EDN Electronic News. Accessed 4, 04 2007, from http://www.edn.com/article/CA6547845.html
Delorese, A. (1998). Healing the downsized organisation. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Demerjian, C. (2005). HP continues stealth layoffs. The Inquirer. Accessed 09, 02 2005, from http://www.theinquirer.net/en/inquirer/news/2005/02/09/hp-continues-stealth-layoffs
Devine, K., Reay, T., Stainton, L., & Collins-Nakai, R. (2003). The stress of downsizing: Comparing survivors and victims. Human Resource Management, 42, 109124.
Dimitras, A. I., Zanakis, S. H., & Zopounidis, C. (1996). A survey of business failures with an emphasis on prediction methods and industrial applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 90, 487513.
Dolan, S., Belout, A., & Balkin, D. B. (2000). Downsizing without downgrading: Learning how firms manage their survivors. International Journal of Manpower, 21(1), 3446.
Downs, A. (1995). Corporate executions. New York: Amacom.
Elstein, A. (2008). Research: 22,000 jobs cut on Wall Street, with more to come. Crain's New York Business, Workforce Management. Accessed 2 06 2008, from http://www.workforce.com/section/00/article/25/56/87.html
Espahbodi, R., John, T. A., & Vasudevan, G. (2000). The effects of downsizing on operating performance. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 15, 107126.
Estok, D. (1996). The high cost of ‘dumbsizing’. Macleans's, 109(23), 2829.
Farrell, M., & Mavondo, F. (2004). The effect of downsizing strategy and reorientation strategy on a learning orientation. Personnel Review, 33(4), 383402.
Filipowski, D. (1993). Don't rush downsizing: Plan, plan, plan, Personnel Journal, 72(11), 6476.
Fisher, S. R., & White, M. A. (2000). Downsizing in a learning organization: Are there hidden costs? Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 244251.
Freeman, S., & Cameron, K. S. (1993). Organizational downsizing: A convergence and reorientation framework. Organizational Science, 4(1), 1029.
Freeman, S. J. (1994). Organizational downsizing as convergence or reorientation: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management, 33(2), 213238.
Gandolfi, F. (2005). How do organizations implement downsizing? – An Australian and New Zealand study. Contemporary Management Research, 1(1), 5768.
Gandolfi, F. (2006a). Personal development and growth in a downsized banking organization: Summary of methodology and findings. Journal of Human Resource Development International, 9(2), 207226.
Gandolfi, F. (2006b). Corporate downsizing demystified: A scholarly analysis of a business phenomenon. Hyderabad, India: The ICFAI University Press.
Gandolfi, F. (2007). How do large Australian and Swiss banks implement downsizing? Journal of Management & Organization, 13(2), 145159.
Gandolfi, F. (2008). Reflecting on downsizing – what have managers learned? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(2), 4656.
Gandolfi, F. (2009). Where did downsizing go? A review of 30 years of a strategic business phenomenon. The Australasian Journal of Business and Social Inquiry, 7(1), 4065.
Gandolfi, F., & Hansson, M. (2010). Reduction-in-force (RIF) – New developments and a brief historical analysis of a business strategy. Journal of Management & Organization, 16(5), 727743.
Gandolfi, F., & Neck, P. (2003). Organizational downsizing: A review of the background, its development, and current status. The Australasian Journal of Business and Social Inquiry, 1(1), 1629.
Gandolfi, F., & Neck, P. (2008). Consequences, payoffs, and fallout of downsizing (A literature review of corporate downsizing: Part 3). Review of International Comparative Management, 9(1), 5578.
Gandolfi, F., & Oster, G. (2009). Sustaining innovation during corporate downsizing. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 74(2), 4253.
Gettler, L. (1998). Survey: Downsizing doesn't cut costs. Sydney Morning Herald. Accessed 06 16, 1998, p. 27.
Ghemawat, P. (1991). Commitment: The dynamic of strategy. New York: Free Press.
Greenglass, E. R., & Burke, R. J. (2001). Downsizing and restructuring, implications for stress and anxiety. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 14, 113.
Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job Insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 438448.
Griggs, H. E., & Hyland, P. (2003). Strategic downsizing and learning organizations. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(2–4), 177187.
Guest, D. (1998). Beyond HRM: Commitment and the contract culture. In Sparrow, P. & Marchington, M. (Eds.), Human resource management: The new agenda (pp. 3751). London: FT/Pitman Publishing.
Guthrie, J. P., & Datta, D. K. (2008). Dumb and dumber. The impact of downsizing on firm performance as moderated by industry conditions. Organizational Science, 19, 108123.
Halley, A. A. (1995). Downsizing. Washington DC Office: The Meridian International Institute.
Hambrick, D. C., & D'Aveni, R. A. (1988). Large corporate failures as downward spirals. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 133.
Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. H. (1988). The ecology of organizational mortality: American labor unions 1863–1985. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 2552.
Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. H. (1989). Organizational ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. H. (1989). Organizational ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hansson, M. (2008a). On closedowns: Towards a pattern of explanations to the closedown effect. Doctoral dissertation, Örebro Studies in Business Dissertations, No. 1. Örebro University, Sweden.
Hansson, M. (2008b). When the lights go out, conference proceedings. The Academy of Management Annual Conference, Anaheim.
Hansson, M., & Wigblad, R. (2006a). Recontextualizing the Hawthorne effect. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 22, 120137.
Hansson, M., & Wigblad, R. (2006b). Pyrrhic victories – Anticipating the closedown effect. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(5), 938958.
Harrigan, K. R. (1982). Exit decisions in mature industries. Academy of Management Journal, 25, 707732.
Harrington, H. J. (1998). Performance improvement: The downside to quality improvement (the surplus people problem). The TQM Magazine, 10(3). http://www.emerald-library.com/brev/10610cb1.html
Havlovic, S. J., Bouthillette, F., & Van der Wal, R. (1998). Coping with downsizing and job loss. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 15, 322332.
Hedberg, B. L. T., Nystrom, P. C., & Starbuck, W. (1978). Camping on the seesaws: Prescriptions of a self-designing organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(1), 4165.
Hillier, D., Marshall, A., McColgan, P., & Wereman, S. (2007). Employee layoffs, shareholder wealth and firm performance: Evidence from the UK. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 34(3–4), 467494.
Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W., Harback, H. F., & Nixon, R. D. (1994). Rightsizing – building and maintaining strategic leadership: A long-term competitiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 23, 1832.
Jackson, P., Mellahi, K., & Sparks, L. (2005). Shutting up shop: Understanding the international exit process in retailing. Service Industries Journal, 25, 252273.
Kets de Vries, M., & Balazs, K. (1997). The downsizing of downsizing. Human Relations, 50, 1150.
Kettley, P. (1995). Employee morale during downsizing. Report 291. London: Institute of Employment Studies.
Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S., & Purcell, J. (1998). Downsizing: Is it always lean and mean? Personnel Review, 27(4), 296311.
Konovsky, M. A., & Brockner, J. (1993). Managing victim and survivor layoff reactions: A procedural justice perspective. In Cropanzano, R. (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: Approaching fairness in human resource management (pp. 133153). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T., Smith, E., & Hedlung, J. (1993). Organizational downsizing: Strategies, interventions, and research implications. In Cooper, C. L. & Robertson, I. T. (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 264332). London: Wiley.
Krane, J. (2002). IBM's unannounced layoffs near 5,000 mark. CRN, 05 31. Accessed http://www.crn.com/it-channel/18820762
Lamsa, A. M., & Takala, T. (2000). Downsizing and ethics of personnel dismissals – The case of Finnish managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 23, 389399.
Lecky, S. (1998). The failure of slash & earn. Sydney Morning Herald, 8387.
Lee, C. (1992). After the cuts. Training, 1723.
Lee, S., & Alexander, J. (1999). Managing hospitals in turbulent times: Do organizational changes improve hospital survival? Health Service Research, 34(4), 923946.
Littler, C. R. (1998). Downsizing organisations: The dilemmas of change. Human Resources Management Bulletin. Sydney: CCH Australia.
Littler, C. R. (2000). Comparing the downsizing experiences of three countries: A restructuring cycle? In Burke, R. J. & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.), The organization in crisis (pp. 5877). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Littler, C. R., Bramble, T., & MacDonald, J. (1994). Organizational restructuring: Downsizing, delayering and managing change at work. Canberra: AGPS.
Littler, C. R., Dunford, R., Bramble, T., & Hede, A. (1997). The dynamics of downsizing in Australia and New Zealand. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(1), 6579.
Littler, C. R., & Gandolfi, F. (2008). What happened to downsizing? Organizational continuity, managerial fashion, & signaling. Academy of Management Conference. Anaheim, CA.
Littler, C. R., & Hansson, M. (2007). Closure and downsizing: Integrating overlapping literatures. Academy of Management Annual Conference. Philadelphia, PA.
Littler, C. R., & Innes, P. (2003). Downsizing and deknowledging the firm. Work, Employment and Society, 17(1), 73100.
Littler, C. R., Wiesner, R., & Dunford, R. (2003). The dynamics of delayering: Changing management structures in three countries. Journal of Management Studies, 40(2), 225256.
Love, G. E., & Nohria, N. (2005). Reducing slack: The performance consequences of downsizing by large industrial firms, 1977-93. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 10871108.
Luft, J., & Shields, M. D. (2003). Mapping management accounting: Graphics and guidelines for theory-consistent empirical research. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28, 169249.
Luthans, B. C., & Sommer, S. M. (1999). The impact of downsizing on workplace attitudes. Group and Organization Management, 24(1), 4670.
Macky, K. (2004). Organisational downsizing and redundancies: The New Zealand workers' experience. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 29(1), 6387.
Makawatsakul, N., & Kleiner, B. H. (2003). The effect of downsizing on morale and attrition. Management Research News, 26, 24.
Marks, M. L., & De Meuse, K. P. (2003). The realities of resizing. In De Meuse, K. P. & Marks, M. L. (Eds.), Resizing the organization. Managing layoffs, divestitures, and closings (pp. 139). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Martino, M. (2007). Pfizer: Top 5 layoffs in 2007. FierceBiotech, 10 15, 2007.
McGregor, J. (2008). The stealth layoff. Business Week, 05 16, 2008.
McKinley, W., Sanchez, C. M., & Schick, A. G. (1995). Organizational downsizing: Constraining, cloning, and learning. Academy of Management Executive, 9, 3242.
Mellahi, K., & Wilkinson, A. (2004). Organizational failure: A critique of recent research and a proposed integrative framework. International Journal of Management Review, 5/6(1), 2141.
Mirabal, N., & DeYoung, R. (2005). Downsizing as a strategic intervention. Journal of American Academy of Business, 6(1), 3945.
Mirvis, P. H., & Marks, M. L. (1992). Managing the merger: Making it work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Direct.
Montgomery, C. A., & Thomas, A. R. (1988). Divestments: Motives and gains. Strategic Management Journal, 9(1), 9397.
Morris, J. R., Cascio, W. F., & Young, C. E. (1999). Downsizing after all these years: Questions and answers about who did it, how many did it, and who benefited from it. Organizational Dynamics, 27(3), 7887.
Mroczkowski, T., & Hanaoka, M. (1997). Effective rightsizing strategies in Japan and America: Is there a convergence of employment practices? The Academy of Management Executive, 11(2), 5767.
Nelson, B. (1997). The care of the un-downsized. Training & Development, 51(4), 4043.
Noer, D. (1993). Healing the wounds: Overcoming the trauma of layoffs and revitalizing downsized organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Ogg, E. (2007). Dell to lay off 10 percent of work-force. CNET News.com, 05 31. http://news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-9724562-7.html
Radcliffe, V. S., Campbell, D. R., & Fogarty, T. J. (2001). Exploring downsizing: A case study on the use of accounting information. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 1, 131157.
Read, M. (2008). Celent: 200,000 US banking jobs at risk. USA Today. Accessed 01 4, 2008 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-04-01-3967896049_x.htm
Redman, T., & Keithley, D. (1998). Downsizing goes east? Employment re-structuring in post-socialist Poland. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(2), 274295.
Richtnér, A., & Ahlström, P. (2006). Organizational downsizing and innovation. SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Business Administration, 1.
Richtmyer, R. (2002). IBM workers fear the axe. CNNMoney, 05 10, 2002. Accessed from http://www.money.cnn.com/2002/05/09/technology/ibm/index.htm
Robbins, K. D., & Pearce, J. A. II (1992). Turnaround: Retrenchment and recovery. Strategic Management Journal, 13, 287309.
Rousseau, D. M., & McLean-Parks, J. (1993). The contracts of individuals in organizations. In Cummings, L. L. & Staw, B. M. (Eds.), Research on organizational behavior (pp. 143). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Ryan, L., & Macky K. A. (1998). Downsizing organizations: Uses, outcomes and strategies. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 36(2), 2945.
Sahdev, K. (2003). Survivors' reactions to downsizing: The importance of contextual factors. Human Resource Management Journal, 13(4), 5674.
Schweiger, D. M., Ivancevich, J. M., & Power, F. R. (1987). Executive actions for managing human resources before and after acquisition. Academy of Management Executive, 1(2), 127138.
Shaw, J. B., & Barrett-Power, E. (1997). A conceptual framework for assessing organization, work group and individual effectiveness during and after downsizing. Human Relations, 50(2), 109127.
Smeltzer, L. R., & Zener, M. F. (1994). Minimizing the negative effect of employee layoffs through effective announcements. Employee Counselling Today, 6(4), 39.
Sowjanya, M., & Vasanthi, V. (2009). Managing downturn without downsizing (A): US financial crisis and layoffs. Hyderabad, India: IBS Case Development Centre. http://www.ibscdc.org/Case_Studies/Strategy/Troubled%20Times/TRT0138.htm
Sparrow, P. (1998). New organizational forms, processes, jobs and psychological contracts: Resolving the HRM issues. In Sparrow, P. & Marchington, M. (Eds.), Human resource management: The new agenda (pp. 117141). London: Financial Times/Pitman Publishing.
Starbuck, W. H., Greve, A., & Hedberg, B. L. T. (1978). Responding to crisis. Journal of Business Administration, 9, 111137.
Staw, B. M., Sandelands, L. E., & Dutton, J. E. (1981). Threat-rigidity effects in organizational behavior: A multilevel analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 501524.
Story, L., & Dash, E. (2008). For Wall Street workers, ax falls quietly. The New York Times, 05 16, 2008.
Sverke, M., & Hellgren, J. (2001). Unionized employees' perceptions of role stress and fairness during organizational downsizing: Consequences for job satisfaction, union satisfaction and well-being. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 22, 543567.
Thornhill, A., & Saunders, M. N. K. (1998). The meanings, consequences and implications of the management of downsizing and redundancy: A review. MCB Personnel Review, 27(4), 271295.
Thorpe, R., Holt, R., Macpherson, A., & Pittaway, L. (2005). Using knowledge within small and medium-sized firms: A systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4), 257281.
Wagar, T. (1998). Exploring the consequences of workforce reduction. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 15, 300309.
Weiss, D. C. (2008). Humor columnist takes aim at stealth layoffs. ABA Journal, 05 23, 2008.
Whetten, D. A. (1980). Organizational decline: A neglected topic in organizational science. Academy of Management Review, 5(4), 577588.
Worrell, D. L., Davidson, W. N., & Sharma, V. M. (1991). “Layoff announcements and stockholder wealth”. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 662678.
Yoo, H., & Mody, B (2000). Predictors of downsizing in the US local telephone industry. Information Society, 13, 2333.
Zammuto, R. F., & Cameron, K. S. (1985). Environmental decline and organizational response. In Staw, B. M. & Cummings, L. L. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 171222). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Zatzick, C. D., & Iverson, R. D. (2006). High-involvement management and workforce reduction: Competitive advantage or disadvantage. The Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 9991015.
Zemke, R. (1990). The ups and downs of downsizing. Training, 11 1990, 2734.
Zyglidopoulos, S. C. (2003). The impact of downsizing on the corporate reputation for social performance. Journal of Public Affairs, 4(1), 1125.

Keywords

Causes and consequences of downsizing: Towards an integrative framework*

  • Franco Gandolfi (a1) and Magnus Hansson (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed