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This review aimed to critically analyse data pertaining to the clinical presentation and treatment of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx.
A PubMed search was performed using the term ‘neuroendocrine carcinoma’. English-language articles on neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx were reviewed in detail.
Results and conclusion
While many historical classifications have been proposed, in contemporary practice these tumours are sub-classified into four subtypes: carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. These tumours exhibit a wide range of biological behaviour, ranging from the extremely aggressive nature of small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which usually have a fatal prognosis, to the less aggressive course of carcinoid tumours. In small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, a combination of irradiation and chemotherapy is indicated, while carcinoid and atypical carcinoid tumour management entails conservation surgery.
Acute mastoiditis remains the commonest intratemporal complication of otitis media in the paediatric population. There has been a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and management of acute mastoiditis, resulting in considerable disparity in conservative and surgical management.
To review the current literature, proposing recommendations for the management of paediatric acute mastoiditis and appraising the treatment outcomes.
A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases.
Twenty-one studies were included, with a total of 564 patients. Cure rates of medical treatment, conservative surgery and mastoidectomy were 95.9 per cent, 96.3 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively.
Mastoidectomy may be the most definitive treatment available; however, reviewed data suggest that conservative treatment alone has high efficacy as first-line treatment in uncomplicated cases of acute mastoiditis, and conservative therapy may be an appropriate first-line management when treating acute mastoiditis.
Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea is a common clinical condition managed by most ENT clinicians. However, despite the plethora of publications on the subject, there is wide variability, in the literature and in practice, on key aspects such as diagnostic criteria, the impact of co-morbidities and the indications for surgical correction.
A systematic review is presented, addressing four key questions from the available literature: (1) what is the evidence base for any definition of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; (2) does it cause serious systemic illness?; (3) what co-morbidities influence the severity of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; and (4) is there a medical answer?
Results and conclusion:
There is a considerable lack of evidence regarding most of these fundamental questions. Notably, screening measures show low specificity and can be insensitive to mild obstructive sleep apnoea. There is a surprising lack of clarity in the definition (let alone estimate of severity) of sleep-disordered breathing, relying on what may be arbitrary test thresholds. Areas of potential research might include investigation of the mechanisms through which obstructive sleep apnoea causes co-morbidities, whether neurocognitive, behavioural, metabolic or cardiovascular, and the role of non-surgical management.
One hundred years ago, millions of British and Allied troops were fighting in the trenches of the Great War. With a tenth of soldiers losing their lives, hearing loss seemed a low priority; however, vast numbers of troops sustained significant hearing loss.
A review was conducted of literature published between 1914 and 1925.
Soldiers were exposed to up to 185 dB of sustained noise from new, high-energy weapons, which caused ‘labyrinthine concussion’. Traumatic injuries, non-organic hearing loss and malingering were also common. One source estimated that 2.4 per cent of the army was disabled by hearing loss. However, many British doctors viewed this ‘soldier's deafness’ as a temporary affliction, resulting in soldiers being labelled as malingerers or ‘hysterical’.
Today, one can recognise that a scant evidence base and misconceptions influenced the mismanagement of hearing loss by otolaryngologists in World War I. However, noise-induced hearing loss is still very much a feature of armed conflict.
The prevalence of rhinitis in athletes has frequently been studied in combination with asthma, but the impact of exercise on the paracrine and secretory functions of nasal mucosa is less well established. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of exercise on nasal mucosa in elite athletes.
A systematic search of Medline, Embase and the non-Medline subset of PubMed, from inception to 8th March 2016, was performed to identify studies on rhinitis in athletes.
Of the 373 identified unique articles, a total of 8 studies satisfied the criteria for this review.
There is no evidence in the existing literature that indicates a reduction in nasal airway induced by exercise. Olfaction and mucociliary transport time are affected in swimmers, which can likely be attributed to chlorine irritation and which resolves with training cessation. Short-term strenuous exercise may trigger changes in cytology and prolonged mucociliary transport time, which also resolve quickly with rest.
Immunoglobulin G4 related disease is a recently described systemic syndrome. The head and neck region is the second most common site for presentation after the pancreas.
PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1995 to July 2017 for all the studies on immunoglobulin G4 related disease diagnosed in the head and neck compartment. Patient-specific data were extracted and basic statistical analysis was performed.
Ninety-one patients were identified. Treatment was specified in 76 patients. Twenty patients received surgical treatment, eight of them in association with medical therapy. Fifty-six patients received medical treatment. The disease recurred in 25 per cent of patients treated with surgical treatment alone, in 3.6 per cent of patients treated with medical treatment alone and in 12.5 per cent of patients treated with both. All medical treatment protocols contained high-dose corticosteroids.
Early and correct diagnosis can avoid unnecessary surgical treatment, and glucocorticoid therapy can improve the long-term prognosis.
To summarise the available literature related to wound healing post tonsillectomy, including the stages of healing, experimental models for assessing healing (in animals and humans) and the various factors that affect wound healing.
A search of the English literature was conducted using the Ovid Medline database, with the search terms ‘tonsillectomy’ or ‘tonsil’ and ‘wound healing’. Thirty-one articles that objectively assessed tonsillectomy wound healing were included for analysis.
The majority of assessments in humans investigating tonsillectomy wound healing involve serial direct clinical examinations of the oral cavity. Many patient and surgical factors have been shown to affect wound healing after tonsillectomy. There is some research to suggest that the administration of adjunctive treatment in the post-operative period may be beneficial to tonsillectomy wound healing.
Wound healing post tonsillectomy has been poorly researched. Having a better understanding of the process of wound healing would allow surgeons to potentially prevent, anticipate and manage complications from the surgery that arise as part of the healing process.