We report an extremely rare case of rhinosporidiosis with involvement of both larynx and trachea, together with coexisting nasal, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal lesions, in a 32-year-old man.
Case report and review of the world literature concerning laryngotracheal and disseminated rhinosporidiosis.
A 32-year-old, South Indian man presented with a nasal mass of four years' duration, with progressive hoarseness for one year. Strawberry-like rhinosporidial masses were seen in both nasal cavities. Fibre-optic laryngoscopic examination revealed reddish masses with whitish surface specks, involving the glottis, subglottis and trachea. Computed tomography revealed soft tissue opacities involving both nasal cavities and the nasopharynx and extending to the oropharynx, with involvement of the larynx and trachea. Direct laryngoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy guided excision of the laryngeal and tracheal lesions was performed.
Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic, granulomatous disease which usually affects the mucous membranes of the nose and nasopharynx. Lower dissemination into the trachea is extremely rare. Laryngotracheal involvement poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, due to the potential risk of bleeding and aspiration. In the presented case, local spread of rhinosporidiosis, due to direct spillage of spores from the nasopharynx into the larynx during episodes of bleeding or previous surgery, may have resulted in laryngotracheal involvement, although systemic spread cannot be excluded.