Skip to main content Accessibility help

Paranasal sinus computed tomography anatomy: a surgeon's perspective

  • Y Ramakrishnan (a1), I Zammit-Maempel (a1), N S Jones (a1) and S Carrie (a1)


Computed tomography scans serve as a critical ‘roadmap’ for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. A systematic evaluation of such scans, and an awareness of any anatomical variants that may modify one's surgical approach, allow one to pre-empt complications. This article describes, from a novice's perspective, two methods of evaluating paranasal sinus computed tomography scans: a quick assessment technique; and a step-wise, operative approach covering radiological features relevant to pre- and peri-operative management.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Mr Yujay Ramakrishnan, c/o Mr Carrie's secretary, ENT Dept, Freeman Hospital, High Heaton, Newcastle NE7 7DN, UK E-mail:


Hide All
1Havas, TE, Motbey, JA, Gullane, PJ. Prevalence of incidental abnormalities on computed tomographic scans of the paranasal sinuses. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;114:856–9
2Earwaker, J. Anatomic variants in sinonasal CT. Radiographics 1993;13:381415
3Hoang, JK, Eastwood, JD, Tebbit, CL, Glastonbury, CM. Multiplanar sinus CT: a systematic approach to imaging before functional endoscopic sinus surgery. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;194:W527–36
4Huang, BY, Lloyd, KM, DelGaudio, JM, Jablonowski, E, Hudgins, PA. Failed endoscopic sinus surgery: spectrum of CT findings in the frontal recess. Radiographics 2009;29:177–95
5Mason, JD, Jones, NS, Hughes, RJ, Holland, IM. A systematic approach to the interpretation of computed tomography scans prior to endoscopic sinus surgery. J Laryngol Otol 1998;112:986–90
6Beale, TJ, Madani, G, Morley, SJ. Imaging of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: normal anatomy and clinically relevant anatomical variants. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2009;30:216
7Wormald, PJ. The agger nasi cell: the key to understanding the anatomy of the frontal recess. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129:497507


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Paranasal sinus computed tomography anatomy: a surgeon's perspective

  • Y Ramakrishnan (a1), I Zammit-Maempel (a1), N S Jones (a1) and S Carrie (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.