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An animal model for endoscopic endonasal surgery and dacryocystorhinostomy training: uses and limitations of the lamb's head

  • R Mladina (a1), K Vuković (a1), R Štern Padovan (a2) and N Skitarelić (a3)



Structured training in endoscopic sinus surgery is essential, considering the serious potential complications. We have developed a detailed endoscopic endonasal surgery training programme, using a lamb's head model. This study aimed to assess the possibilities of using such a model for endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy training.

Materials and methods:

Dacryocystography was performed on lamb's head models, which were then meticulously dissected, both macroscopically and endoscopically, to assess the nasolacrimal system.


Dacryocystography showed the absence of a lacrimal sac in all the lamb's heads dissected. This result was confirmed by dissection.


Lamb's heads are excellent models with which to teach endoscopic sinus surgery techniques. However, this study clearly demonstrated the absence of a lacrimal sac in all such models dissected. Thus, this animal model is inappropriate for endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy training.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Dr Neven Skitarelić, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Put Murvice 33, 23 000 Zadar, Croatia Fax: 00385 23 312724 E-mail:


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An animal model for endoscopic endonasal surgery and dacryocystorhinostomy training: uses and limitations of the lamb's head

  • R Mladina (a1), K Vuković (a1), R Štern Padovan (a2) and N Skitarelić (a3)


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