Experiments were carried out to obtain additional data concerning the role of IgM antibodies, specific for the cuticular surface of the microfilariae (mf) of A. viteae, in clearing microfilaraemia from high-and low-responder mice infected by transplanted adult worms. Although BALB/c mice, which sustain a chronic microfilaraemia, produced IgM mf surface-specific antibodies, the binding to target mf was weak when compared to that of antibodies from the serum of the resistant C57BL/10 mice. Furthermore, antibodies from BALB/c mice were not as efficient as those from C57BL/10 mice in promoting the adherence of immune or control leukocytes to mf in vitro. Evidence is provided to show that mf shed surface bound antibody. Although the results do not establish conclusively the mechanism underlying the contrasting response phenotypes of C57BL/10 and BALB/c mice, they provide support for the involvement of antibody in controlling microfilaraemia and suggest that quantitative and qualitative differences in the amount and affinity of IgM antibody specific for the mf surface, together with the natural tendency of the mf to shed surface bound antibody at 37°C. may combine to allow the former strain to clear microfilaraemia efficiently whilst the latter sustains a chronic infection.