Diaphanocephalus galeatus collected from the small intestine of the lizard Dracaena paraguayensis in the Pantanal wetlands, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, is redescribed. Genetic characterization and observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the first time. The vouchers of D. galeatus and the type specimens of its congeners, deposited in the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC), were consulted. Light and SEM observations revealed several undescribed features of D. galeatus, i.e. structure of the cephalic end and of the buccal capsule, position and morphology of deirids, presence of phasmids in females and presence of unpaired papilla on the membranous projection that covers the genital cone in males. After observation of the specimens deposited in the helminthological collection, D. jacuruxi is considered a synonym of D. galeatus, and D. diesingi, despite its incomplete description, is tentatively retained as valid due to the poor condition of the type material. The results also indicated low host specificity of D. galeatus, contradicting previous assertions. Genetic comparisons using patristic distances and phylogenetic trees generated from sequences of the 28S rRNA nuclear gene indicated that D. galeatus is closer to the taxa within Ancylostomatoidea and Strongyloidea than any lineage of Metastrongyloidea or Trichostrongyloidea. However, most of the nodal supports were low. Based on the genetic and morphological characterization, the validity of D. galeatus was confirmed. These data may serve for further comparative approaches for different populations of the parasite, from different hosts in different geographical areas, mitigating taxonomic confusions.