Skip to main content Accessibility help

Experimental anisakid infections in mice

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 April 2014

M.A. Vericimo
Departamento de Imunobiologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro São João Batista s/n, CEP 24020-150 Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
I. Figueiredo
Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Marques do Paraná 303, CEP 24030-210 Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
G.A.P.B. Teixeira
Departamento de Imunobiologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro São João Batista s/n, CEP 24020-150 Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
S.C. São Clemente
Departamento Tecnologia de Produtos de Origem Animal, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho 64, CEP 24.230-340, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
E-mail address:


Anisakidosis is a human parasitic disease caused by infections with members of the Anisakidae family. Accidental infection after fish intake affects the gastrointestinal tract as a consequence of mechanical damage caused by migrating larvae. Infections can also trigger allergies, hives, severe asthma or anaphylaxis with angioedema. Although mouse models of intraperitoneal antigenic stimulation exist, enabling immunological studies, few models using gastric introduction of live larvae are available for the study of immunological and gastrointestinal damage in mice. This study was designed to characterize serum reactivity against Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum spp. in Balb/c mice following orogastric inoculation and to assess gastrointestinal damage. These anisakid species were classified at the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) School of Veterinary Medicine and materials for live larval inoculation were developed at the UFF Immunobiology laboratory. Live larvae were inoculated following injection with a NaCl solution. Blood samples were collected and sera screened for immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG anti-larva responses to both nematodes, specific for somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The means of the optical densities were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post-hoc test and the general linear model. This analysis identified the presence of anti-IgG seroreactivity to both somatic and excretory/secretory Anisakis antigens in inoculated animals compared with controls (P< 0.001), and no gastric or intestinal damage was observed. These experiments demonstrated that introduction of live Contracaecum spp. into the gastrointestinal tract did not elicit serum sensitization in animals.

Short Communications
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Alonso-Gomez, A., Moreno-Ancillo, A., Lopez-Serrano, M.C., Suarez-De-Parga, J.M., Daschner, A., Caballero, M.T., Barranco, P. & Cabanas, R. (2004) Anisakis simplex only provokes allergic symptoms when the worm parasitises the gastrointestinal tract. Parasitology Research 93, 378384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anadon, A.M., Romaris, F., Escalante, M., Rodriguez, E., Garate, T., Cuellar, C. & Ubeira, F.M. (2009) The Anisakis simplex Ani s 7 major allergen as an indicator of true Anisakis infections. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 156, 471478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansary, T.H., Moghaddar, N. & Esmaeili, H.R. (2009) Iranocichla hormuzensis (Coad 1982), a new paratenic host of Contracaecum sp. and Phocanema sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Comparative Clinical Pathology 19, 335337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Audicana, M.T. & Kennedy, M.W. (2008) Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 21, 360379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Audicana, M.T., Ansotegui, I.J., De Corres, L.F. & Kennedy, M.W. (2002) Anisakis simplex: dangerous – dead and alive? Trends in Parasitology 18, 2025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caballero, M.L., Moneo, I., Gomez-Aguado, F., Corcuera, M.T., Casado, I. & Rodriguez-Perez, R. (2008) Isolation of Ani s 5, an excretory–secretory and highly heat-resistant allergen useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis larvae sensitization. Parasitology Research 103, 12311233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, S.W. & Lee, H.N. (2006) Immune reactions and allergy in experimental anisakiasis. Korean Journal of Parasitology 44, 271283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daschner, A., Cuellar, C. & Rodero, M. (2012) The Anisakis allergy debate: does an evolutionary approach help? Trends in Parasitology 28, 915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dias, F.J., Sao Clemente, S.C., Pinto, R.M. & Knoff, M. (2011) Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of hygienic importance infecting the king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 175, 351355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Figueiredo, I. Jr, Cardoso, L., Teixeira, G., Lopes, L., Sao Clemente, S.C. & Vericimo, M.A. (2012) A technique for the intra-gastric administration of live larvae of Anisakis simplex in mice. Experimental Parasitology 130, 285287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fontenelle, G., Knoff, M., Felizardo, N.N., Lopes, L.M. & Clemente, S.C. (2013) Nematodes of zoonotic importance in Cynoscion guatucupa (Pisces) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 22, 281284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huizinga, M.W. (1965) Studies on the life cycle of nematode parasite Contracaecum in fish eating birds. Northeast fish and wildlife conference, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 17 January.Google Scholar
Jones, R.E., Deardorff, T.L. & Kayes, S.G. (1990) Anisakis simplex: histopathological changes in experimentally infected CBA/J mice. Experimental Parasitology 70, 305313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirstein, F., Horsnell, W.G., Nieuwenhuizen, N., Ryffel, B., Lopata, A.L. & Brombacher, F. (2010) Anisakis pegreffii-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is mediated by gamma interferon in the absence of interleukin-4 receptor alpha responsiveness. Infection and Immunity 78, 40774086.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laffon-Leal, S.M., Vidal-Martinez, V.M. & Arjona-Torres, G. (2000) ‘Cebiche’ – a potential source of human anisakiasis in Mexico? Journal of Helminthology 74, 151154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, X.M., Schofield, B.H., Huang, C.K., Kleiner, G.I. & Sampson, H.A. (1999) A murine model of IgE-mediated cow's milk hypersensitivity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103, 206214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. & Randll, R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265275.Google ScholarPubMed
Mattiucci, S. & Nascetti, G. (2008) Advances and trends in the molecular systematics of anisakid nematodes, with implications for their evolutionary ecology and host–parasite co-evolutionary processes. Advances in Parasitology 66, 47148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mattiucci, S., Fazii, P., De Rosa, A., Meucci, C., Megna, A.S., Glielmo, A., De Angelis, M., Costa, A., Meucci, C., Calvaruso, V., Sorrentini, I., Palma, G., Bruschi, F. & Nascetti, G. (2013) Anisakiasis and gastroallergic reactions associated with Anisakis pegreffii infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19, 496499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perteguer, M.J. & Cuellar, C. (1998) Isotype-specific immune responses in murine experimental anisakiasis. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe B 45, 603610.Google ScholarPubMed
Perteguer, M.J., Cuellar, C., Guillen, J.L., Aguila, C., Fenoy, S., Chivato, T. & Laguna, R. (2003) Cross-reactivity between Anisakis simplex sensitization and visceral larva migrans by Toxocara canis. Acta Tropica 89, 8589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodriguez, E., Romaris, F., Lorenzo, S., Moreno, J., Bonay, P., Ubeira, F.M. & Garate, T. (2006) A recombinant enolase from Anisakis simplex is differentially recognized in natural human and mouse experimental infections. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 195, 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saad, C.D.R., Vieira, F.M. & Luque, J.L. (2012) Larvae of Anisakidae Skrjabin & Karokhin, 1945 (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915 (Actinopterygii, Lophiidae) from the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Neotropical Helminthology 6, 159177.Google Scholar
Schaum, E. & Müller, W. (1967) Heterocheilidiasis (case report). Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 92, 22302233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shamsi, S. & Butcher, A.R. (2011) First report of human anisakidosis in Australia. The Medical Journal of Australia 194, 199200.Google ScholarPubMed
Skirnisson, K. (2006) [Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae) larvae reported from humans in Iceland after consumption of insufficiently cooked fish]. Læknafélag Íslands Laeknabladid 92, 2125(in Icelandic).Google Scholar
Valls, A. & Pascual, C.Y. (2003) [Anisakis and anisakiosis]. Allergologia et immunopathologia (Madrid) 31, 348355(in Spanish).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiler, C.R. (2007) Anisakis simplex and cross-reacting antigens. International Journal of Dermatology 46, 224225.Google ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 42 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 1st December 2020. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-6d4bddd689-zf6rh Total loading time: 0.62 Render date: 2020-12-01T02:46:21.537Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Tue Dec 01 2020 02:43:58 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": false, "languageSwitch": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Experimental anisakid infections in mice
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Experimental anisakid infections in mice
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Experimental anisakid infections in mice
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *