Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Volume calculation and analysis of the changes in moraine-dammed lakes in the north Himalaya: a case study of Longbasaba lake

  • Xiaojun Yao (a1) (a2), Shiyin Liu (a1), Meiping Sun (a1), Junfeng Wei (a1) and Wanqin Guo (a1)...

Abstract

Glacial lake outburst flood hazards in the Himalayan region have received considerable attention in recent years. Accurate volume estimation for glacial lakes is important for calculating outburst flood peak discharge and simulating flood evolution. Longbasaba lake, a potentially dangerous moraine-dammed lake, is located on the north side of the Himalaya. Its depth was surveyed using the SyQwest Hydrobox™ high-resolution echo sounder, and 6916 measurements were collected in September 2009. The maximum and average depths of the lake were 102 ± 2 and 48 ± 2 m, respectively. The morphology of the lake basin was modeled by constructing a triangulated irregular network, and the lake was found to have a storage capacity of 0.064 ± 0.002 km3. Multi-source remote-sensing images from Landsat MSS, Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra ASTER and a topographic map were digitized to delineate the outlines of the lake between 1977 and 2009. The results indicate that the length and area of the lake have increased during the past 32 years, with a drastic expansion occurring since 2000. Based on volume and area data of Longbasaba lake in different periods, we deduced an empirical equation of the lake volume-area relationship that can be used to calculate the storage capacity of similar moraine-dammed lakes in the Himalayan region.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Volume calculation and analysis of the changes in moraine-dammed lakes in the north Himalaya: a case study of Longbasaba lake
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Volume calculation and analysis of the changes in moraine-dammed lakes in the north Himalaya: a case study of Longbasaba lake
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Volume calculation and analysis of the changes in moraine-dammed lakes in the north Himalaya: a case study of Longbasaba lake
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Awal, R, Nakagawa, H, Fujita, M, Kaiwake, K, Baba, Y and Zhang, H (2010) Experimental study on glacial lake outburst floods due to waves overtopping and erosion of moraine dam. Ann. Disast. Prev. Res. Inst., 53(B), 583-594
Bajracharya, SR and Mool, P (2009) Glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods in the Mount Everest region, Nepal. Ann. Glaciol., 50(53), 81-86 (doi:10.3189/172756410790595895)
Bajracharya, SR, Mool, PK and Shrestha, B (2007) Impact of climate change on Himalayan glaciers and glacial lakes: case studies on GLOF and associated hazards in Nepal and Bhutan. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development and United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office, Asia and the Pacific, Kathmandu (ICIMOD Publication 169)
Benn, DI, Warren, CW and Mottram, RH (2007) Calving processes and the dynamics of calving glaciers. Earth-Sci. Rev., 82(3-4), 143-179 (doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2007.02.002)
Bhargava, ON (1995) Geology, environmental hazards and remedial measures of the Lunana area, Gasa Dzongkhag: report of 1995 Indo-Bhutan Expedition. Geological Survey of India, Kolkata
Carrivick, JL (2010) Dam break-outburst flood propagation and transient hydraulics: a geosciences perspective. J. Hydrol., 380(3-4), 338-355
Che, T, Jin, R, Li, X and Wu, L-Z (2004) Glacial lakes variation and the potentially dangerous glacial lakes in the Pumqu Basin of Tibet during the last two decades. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 26(4), 397402 [in Chinese with English summary]
Chen, X, Cui, P, Yang, Z and Qi, Y (2005) Changes in glaciers and glacier lakes in Boiqu River Basin, Middle Himalayas during last 15 years. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 27(6), 793-800 [in Chinese with English summary]
Chen, X, Cui, P, Yang, Z and Qi, Y (2007) Risk assessment of glacial lake outburst in the Poiqu river basin of Tibet Autonomous Region. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 29(4), 509-516 [in Chinese with English summary]
Chen, X, Lu, J, Cai, X, Li, H and Yin, S (2008) Geomatics-based method research on capacity calculation of quake lake. Int. J. Remote Sens., 12(6), 885-892
Clague, JJ and Evans, SG (2000) A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia. Quat. Sci. Rev., 19(17-18), 1763-1783
Ding, Y and Liu, J (1992) Glacier lake outburst flood disasters in China. Ann. Glaciol., 16, 180-184
Evans, SG (1986) The maximum discharge of outburst floods caused by breaching of man-made and natural dams. Can. Geotech. J., 23(3), 385-387
Fujita, K, Suzuki, R, Nuimura, T and Sakai, A (2008) Performance of ASTER and SRTM DEMs, and their potential for assessing glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan Himalaya. J. Glaciol., 54(185), 220-228 (doi: 10.3189/002214308784886162)
Gardelle, J, Arnaud Yand Berthier, E (2011) Contrasted evolution of glacial lakes along the Hindu Kush Himalaya mountain range between 1990 and 2009. Global Planet. Change, 75(1-2), 47-55 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.10.003)
Haeberli, W and 7 others (2004) The Kolka-Karmadon rock/ice slide of 20 September 2002: an extraordinary event of historical dimensions in North Ossetia, Russian Caucasus. J. Glaciol., 50(171), 533-546 (doi: 10.3189/172756504781829710)
Hall, DK, Bayr, KJ, Schoner, W, Bindschadler, RA and Chien, JYL (2003) Consideration of the errors inherent in mapping historical glacier positions in Austria from ground and space (1893-2001). Remote Sens. Environ., 86(4), 566-577
He, Y, Ma, D, Cui, P and Chen, R (2002) Debris flows along the China-Nepal Highway. Acta Geogr. Sinica, 57(3), 275-283
Huggel, C, Kaab, A, Haeberli, W, Teysseire Pand Paul, F (2002) Remote sensing based assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: a case study in the Swiss Alps. Can. Geotech. J., 39(2), 316-330
Huggel, C, Haeberli, W, Kaab, A, Bieri, D and Richardson, S (2004) An assessment procedure for glacial hazards in the Swiss Alps. Can. Geotech. J, 41(6), 1068-1083
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICI- MOD) (2007) Inventory of glaciers, glacial lakes and identification of potential Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOFs) affected by global warming in the mountains of Himalayan Region. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu
Komori, J (2008) Recent expansions of glacial lakes in the Bhutan Himalayas. Quat. Int., 184(1), 177-186 (doi: 10.1016/ j.quaint.2007.09.012)
Li, C and Zhang, Y (2008) Consideration on disaster relief of Pida lake and Longbasaba lake in Tibet. China Water Res., 6, 32-34 [in Chinese with English summary]
Li, Z and 12 others (2011) Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades. Environ. Res. Lett., 6(4), 045404 (doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/ 4/045404)
Liu, C and Sharma, CK eds. (1988) Report on first expedition to glaciers and glacier lakes in the Pumqu (Arun) and Poiqu (Bhote- Sun Koshi) river basins, Xizang (Tibet), China. Science Press, Beijing
Lu, A, Yao, T, Wang, L, Liu, S and Guo, Z (2005) Study on the fluctuations of typical glaciers and lakes in the Tibetan Plateau using remote sensing. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 27(6), 783-792 [in Chinese with English summary]
Mool, PK (1995) Glacier lake outburst floods in Nepal. J. Nepal Geol. Soc., 11, 273-280
Mool, PK, Bajracharya, SR and Joshi, SP (2001) Inventory of glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods, Nepal. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu
Ng, F, Liu, S, Mavlyudov, B and Wang, Y (2007) Climatic control on the peak discharge of glacier outburst floods. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(21), L21503 (doi: 10.1029/2007GL031426)
Otero, J, Navarro, FJ, Martin, C, Cuadrado, ML and Corcuera, MI (2010) A three-dimensional calving model: numerical experiments on Johnsons Glacier, Livingston Island, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 56(196), 200-214 (doi: 10.3189/002214310791968539)
Pu, J, Yao, T, Wang, N, Su, Z and Seng, Y (2004) Fluctuations of the glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the past century. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 26(5), 517-522 [in Chinese with English summary]
Reynolds, J (1998) Managing the risks of glacial flooding at hydro plants. Hydro Rev. Worldw., 6(2), 2-6
Richardson, SD and Reynolds, JM (2000) An overview of glacial hazards in the Himalayas. Quat. Int., 65/66(1), 31-47
Sakai, A, Fujita, K and Yamada, T (2005) Expansion of the Imja glacier lake in the east Nepal Himalaya. In Mavlyudov, BR ed. Glacier caves and glacial kerst in high mountains and polar regions. Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 74-79
Sakai, A, Nishimura, K, Kadota, T and Takeuchi, N (2009) Onset of calving at supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya. J. Glaciol., 55(193), 909-917 (doi: 10.3189/ 002214309790152555)
Sharma, KF, Sakai, A, Nuimura, T, Yamaguchi, S and Sharma, RR (2009) Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery. Environ. Res. Lett., 4(4), 045205 (doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045205)
Shi, W, Yang, C, You, G and Jin, M (1991) The measurement of reserve of glacier block lake on the upper stream of Yerqiang river and the calculation of its maximum flood. Arid Land Geogr., 14(4), 31-35
Shi, Y and Ren, J (1990) Glacier recession and lake shrinkage indicating a climatic warming and drying trend in central Asia. Ann. Glaciol., 14, 261-265
Shrestha, AB, Eriksson, M, Mool, P, Ghimire, P, Mishra, B and Khanal, MR (2010) Glacial lake outburst flood risk assessment of Sun Koshi basin, Nepal. Geomatics, Natur. Hazards Risks, 1(2), 157-169
Singh, P and Bengtsson, L (2005) Impact of warmer climate on melt and evaporation for the rainfed, snowfed and glacierfed basins in the Himalayan region. J. Hydrol., 300, 140-154
Wang, X and Liu, SY (2007) An overview of researches on moraine- dammed lake outburst flood hazards. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 29(4), 626-635
Wang, X, Liu, SY, Guo, WQ and Xu, JL (2008) Assessment and simulation of glacier lake outburst floods for Longbasaba and Pida lakes, China. Mt. Res. Dev., 28(3-4), 310-317
Wang, X, Liu, S, Yao, X, Guo, W, Yu, P and Xu, J (2010) Glacier lake investigation and inventory in the Chinese Himalayas based on the remote sensing data. Acta Geogr. Sinica, 65(1), 29-36
Williams, RS Jr, Hall, DK and Chien, JYL (1997) Comparison of satellite-derived with ground-based measurements of the fluctuations of the margins of Vatnajokull, Iceland, 1973-92. Ann. Glaciol., 24, 72-80
Xu, D and Feng, Q (1989) Dangerous glacial lake and outburst features in Xizang Himalayas. Acta Geogr. Sinica, 44(3), 343-352
Yamada, T (1998) Glacier lake and its outburst flood in the Nepal Himalaya. Data Center for Glacier Research, Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, Tokyo
Yamada, T and Sharma, CK (1993) Glacier lakes and outburst floods in the Nepal Himalaya. IAHS Publ. 218 (Symposium at Kathmandu 1992 - Snow and Glacier Hydrology), 319-330
Yang, X and 6 others (2006) Climate change in Mt. Qomolangma region in China during the last 34 years. Acta Geogr. Sinica, 61 (7), 687-696
Yao, T and 7 others (2010) Glacial distribution and mass balance in the Yarlung Zangbo River and its influence on lakes. Chinese Sci. Bull., 55(20), 2072-2078 (doi: 10.1007/s11434- 010-3213-5)
Zhang, R, Fang, H, Zhao, F and Zeng, F (2010) Remote sensing survey of existing glaciers in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Remote Sens. Land Resour., 86, 45-48 [in Chinese with English summary]
Zheng, D, Lin, Z and Zhang, X (2002) Progress in studies of Tibetan Plateau and global environment change. Earth Sci. Frontiers, 9(1), 95-102 [in Chinese with English summary]

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed