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Towards Identification of Optimum Radar Parameters for Sea-Ice Monitoring

  • Y. S. Kim (a1), R. K. Moore (a1), R. G. Onstott (a1) and S. Gogineni (a1)

Abstract

Various field experiments have shown that microwave radars can be used to distinguish multi-year from first-year ice, although optimum radar parameters are not yet fully defined.

This paper presents the results from two theoretical models that, using selected physical parameters of sea ice, are able to predict the backscattering from multi-year and first-year ice under cold conditions. The possible ranges of the backscattering coefficient under various conditions (surface roughness, salinity, temperature, density, and air-bubble size) are calculated for multi-year and first-year ice by adjusting the parameters within the reported range of values.

Although the calculations show no specific resonance that would favor any particular frequency or incidence angles, the results confirm the experimental findings that Ku- and X-band frequencies, and incidence angles greater than 30°, are better for distinguishing sea-ice types than lower frequencies.

Résumé

Différentes expérimentations de terrain ont montré que les micro-ondes des radars pouvaient être utilisées pour distinguer les couches multi-annuelles et la glace de première année, bien que les paramètres radar les plus efficaces dans ce but ne soient pas encore complètement définis.

Cet article présente les résultats de modèles théoriques qui, en sélectionnant certains paramètres physiques de la glace de mer, sont capables de prévoir la dispersion par la glace multi-annuelle et par la glace de première année en conditions froides. Le domaine possible du coefficient de dispersion dans différentes conditions (rugosité, salinité, température, densité et tailles des bulles d’air) est calculé pour la glace multi-annuelle et pour la glace de l’année en ajustant les paramètres dans leur domaine de variation.

Bien que les calculs ne montrent pas de résonance spécifique qui favorise quelque fréquence ou quelques angles d’incidence particuliers, ils confirment les résultats expérimentaux qui montrent que les bandes fréquence Ku et X, ainsi que des angles d’incidence supérieure à environ 30° sont meilleurs que des fréquences plus basses pour distinguer les types de glace de mer.

Zusammenfassung

Verschiedene Feldversuche zeigten, dass Radar-Mikrowellen zur Unterscheidung mehrjährigen Eises von einjährigem benutzt werden können, obwohl die optimalen Radar-Parameter noch nicht völlig bestimmt sind.

Dieser Beitrag enthält Ergebnisse von zwei theoretischen Modellen, die in der Lage sind, aus ausgewählten physikalischen Parametern für Meereis die Rückstreuung sowohl für mehrjähriges wie für einjähriges Eis unter kalten Bedingungen vorherzusagen. Die möglichen Bereiche des Rückstreuungskoeffizienten unter verschiedenen Bedingungen (Oberflächenrauhigkeit, Salzgehalt, Temperatur, Dichte, Luftblasengrösse) werden für mehr- und einjähriges Eis durch Anpassung der Parameter innerhalb bekannter Wertebereiche berechnet.

Obwohl die Berechnungen keine spezifische Resonanz zeigen, die eine bestimmte Frequenz oder einen Einfallswinkel bevorzugen würde, erhärtet das Ergebnis die experimentellen Feststellungen, wonach Ku- und X-Band-Frequenzen und Einfallswinkel grösser als 30° für die Unterscheidung von Meereistypen besser sind als niedrige Frequenzen.

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References

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Towards Identification of Optimum Radar Parameters for Sea-Ice Monitoring

  • Y. S. Kim (a1), R. K. Moore (a1), R. G. Onstott (a1) and S. Gogineni (a1)

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