Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Structural control of englacial conduits in the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA

  • Jason Gulley (a1) (a2)

Abstract

Fourteen englacial conduits were mapped within 2 km of the terminus of the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA, to ice depths of 65 m using speleological techniques. Detailed three-dimensional maps of the conduits were made over 3 years to characterize conduit relationships with glacier structural features and to track conduit evolution through time. All conduits consisted of single unbranching passages that followed fractures in the ice. All conduits were either too constricted to continue or became water-filled at their deepest explored point and were not able to be followed to the glacier bed. Conduit morphology varied systematically with the orientation of the glacier principal stresses, allowing them to be categorized into two broad classes. The first class of conduits were formed by hydrostatic crevasse penetration where a large supraglacial stream intersected longitudinal crevasses. These conduits plunged toward the glacier bed at angles of 30–40°. The second class of conduits formed where smaller streams sank into the glacier on shear crevasses. Many of these conduits changed direction dramatically where they intersected transverse crevasses at depth. These results suggest that the conduits observed in this study formed along fractures and, over their surveyed length, were not affected by gradients in ice overburden pressure.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Structural control of englacial conduits in the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Structural control of englacial conduits in the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Structural control of englacial conduits in the temperate Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alley, R. B., Lawson, D.E., Evenson, E.B., Strasser, J.C. and Larson, G.J.. 1998. Glaciohydraulic supercooling: a freeze-on mechanism to create stratified, debris-rich basal ice: II. Theory. J. Glaciol., 44(148), 563569.
Baker, G.S., Lawson, D.E., Evenson, E.B., Larson, G.J. and Alley, R.B.. 2003. Glaciogeophysics at Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. [Abstr. C21A-05.] Eos, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl.
Benn, D.I., Gulley, J.D., Luckman, A., Adamek, A. and Glowacki, P.. 2009. Englacial drainage systems formed by hydrologically driven crevasse propagation. J. Glaciol., 55(191), 513523.
Chesley, T., Lawson, D.E., Ham, N. and Goetz, S.. 2005. Deformation of pro-glacial sediment due to an advancing ice margin at the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr., 37(5), 83
Ensminger, S.L., Alley, R.B., Evenson, E.B., Lawson, D.E. and Larson, G.J.. 2001. Basal-crevasse-fill origin of laminated debris bands at Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. J. Glaciol., 47(158), 412422.
Ford, D.C. and Williams, P.. 2007. Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Chichester, Wiley.
Fountain, A.G. and Walder, J.S.. 1998. Water flow through temperate glaciers. Rev. Geophys., 36(3), 299328.
Fountain, A.G., Jacobel, R.W., Schlichting, R. and Jansson, P.. 2005. Fractures as the main pathways of water flow in temperate glaciers. Nature, 433(7026), 618621.
Gulley, J. and Benn, D.I.. 2007. Structural control of englacial drainage systems in Himalayan debris-covered glaciers. J. Glaciol., 53(182), 399412.
Gulley, J.D., Benn, D.I., Müller, D. and Luckman, A.. 2009. A cutand-closure origin for englacial conduits in uncrevassed regions of polythermal glaciers. J. Glaciol., 55(189), 6680.
Gulley, J., Benn, D.I., Martin, J. and Screaton, E.. In press. Englacial conduit formation and implications for subglacial recharge. Quat. Sci. Rev.
Holmlund, P. 1988. Internal geometry and evolution of moulins. J. Glaciol., 34(117), 242248.
Hooke, R.LeB. 1989. Englacial and subglacial hydrology: a qualitative review. Arct. Alp. Res., 21(3), 221233.
Iken, A. and Bindschadler, R.A.. 1986. Combined measurements of subglacial water pressure and surface velocity of Findelengletscher, Switzerland: conclusions about drainage system and sliding mechanism. J. Glaciol., 32(110), 101119.
Lawson, D.E., Strasser, J.C., Evenson, E.B., Alley, R.B., Larson, G.J. and Arcone, S.A.. 1998. Glaciohydraulic supercooling: a freeze-on mechanism to create stratified, debris-rich basal ice. I. Field evidence. J. Glaciol., 44(148), 547562.
Mavlyudov, B.R. 2005. About new type of subglacial channels, Spitsbergen. In Mavlyudov, B.R., ed. Proceedings of the 7th GLACKIPR Symposium on Glacier Caves and Glacial Karst in High Mountains and Polar Regions. Moscow, Russian Academy of Sciences. Institute of Geography, 5460.
Murray, T., Dowdeswell, J.A., Drewry, D.J. and Frearson, I.. 1998. Geometric evolution and ice dynamics during a surge of Bakaninbreen, Svalbard. J. Glaciol., 44(147), 263272.
Nye, J.F. 1952. The mechanics of glacier flow. J. Glaciol., 2(12), 8293.
Palmer, A. N. 1991. Origin and morphology of limestone caves. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 103(1), 121.
Palmer, A.N. 2007. Cave geology. Dayton, OH, Cave Books
Pohjola, V.A. 1994. TV-video observations of englacial voids in Storglaciären, Sweden. J. Glaciol., 40(135), 231240.
Pyke, K.A. and 6 others. 2003. Thick-skinned style glaciotectonics at an ice-cored moraine, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr., 35(6), 299.
Röthlisberger, H. 1972. Water pressure in intra- and subglacial channels. J. Glaciol., 11(62), 177203.
Shreve, R.L. 1972. Movement of water in glaciers. J. Glaciol., 11(62), 205214.
Shumway, J. and Goetz, S.. 2005. Ice motion survey and analysis for the terminal zone of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr., 37(5), 83.
Stenborg, T. 1968. Glacier drainage connected with ice structures. Geogr. Ann., 50A(1), 2553.
Stenborg, T. 1969. Studies of the internal drainage of glaciers. Geogr. Ann., 51A(1–2), 1341.
Swift, D.A., Nienow, P.W., Hoey, T.B. and Mair, D.W.F.. 2005. Seasonal evolution of runoff from Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland and implications for glacial geomorphic processes. J. Hydrol., 309 (1–4), 133148.
Van der Veen, C.J. 1998. Fracture mechanics approach to penetration of surface crevasses on glaciers. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 27(1), 3147.
Van der Veen, C.J. 1999. Crevasses on glaciers. Polar Geogr., 23(3), 213245.
White, W. B. 1988. Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. New York, etc., Oxford University Press.
Willis, I.C. 1995. Intra-annual variations in glacier motion: a review. Progr. Phys. Geogr., 19(1), 61106.
Willis, I., Lawson, W., Owens, I., Jacobel, R. and Autridge, J.. 2009. Subglacial drainage system structure and morphology of Brewster Glacier, New Zealand. Hydrol. Process., 23(3), 384396.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed