Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling

  • Roger J. Braithwaite (a1)

Abstract

Ice ablation is related to air temperature by the positive degree-day factor. Variations of the positive degree-day factor in West Greenland are studied using an energy-balance model to simulate ablation under different conditions. Degree-day factors for simulated and measured ice ablation at Nordbogletscher and Qamanârssûp sermia agree well with values around 8 mm d−1 °C−1. Degree-day factors for snow are less than half those for ice. Energy-balance modelling shows that degree-day factors vary with summer mean temperature, surface albedo and turbulence but there is only evidence of large positive degree-day factors at lower temperatures and with low albedo (0.3). The greatest effect of albedo variations (0.3–0.7) is at lower temperatures while variations in turbulence have greater effect at higher temperatures. Current models may underestimate runoff from the Greenland ice sheet by several tenths because they use a degree-day factor for melting ice that is too small for the colder parts of the ice sheet, i.e. the upper ablation area and the northerly margin.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ambach, W. 1963. Untersuchungen zum Energieumsatz in der Ablationszone des grönländischen Inlandeises. CAMP IV-EGIG, 69 °40′05″ Ν, 49 ° 37′58″ W). Medd. Grønl., 174 (4).
Ambach, W. 1977. Untersuchungen zum Energieitmsatz in der Akkumulatioiiszone des grünländischen Inlandeises. Medd. Grønl., 187(7).
Ambach, W. 1986. Nomographs tbr the determination of meltwater from snow-and ice surfaces. Berichte des Wissenschaftlich—Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck, 73, 715.
Ambach, W. 1988. Heat balance characteristics and ice ablation. western EGIG-prolilc. Greenland. In Thomsen, T., Søgaard, H. and Braithwaite, R.J. eds. Applied hydrology in the development of northern basins. Copenhagen. Danish Society lor Arctic Technology, 5970.
Arnold, K. C. and MacKay, D.K. 1964. Different methods of calculating mean daily temperatures, their effects on degree-day totals in thé high Arctic and their significance to glaciology. Geogr. Bulll., 21, 123129.
Bintanja, R. and 9 others. Unpublished. Greenland Ice Margin Experiment (GIMEX). Utrecht. Utrecht University. (GIMEX-90 field report.)
Bøggild, C.E., Reeh, Ν. and Oerter, H. 1994. Modelling ablation and mass-balance sensitivity to climate change of Storstrømmen, north-east Greenland. Global and Planetary Change. 9. 7990.
Braithwaite, R.J. 1977. Air temperature and glacier ablation — a parametric approach. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University.)
Braithwaite, R.J. 1981. On glacier energy balance, ablation and air temperature. J. Glacial., 27(97), 381391.
Braithwaite, R.J. 1985. Calculation of degree-days for glacicr-climaic research. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 20. 1984. 155168.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O.B. 1985. Ice ablation in West Greenland in relation to air temperature and global radiation. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 20. 1984. 155168.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O.B. 1988. Winter accumulation reduces summer ablation on Nordbogletscher. south Greenland, Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 24(1). 2130.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O.B. 1989. Calculation of glacier ablation from air temperature. West Greenland. In Oerlemans, J., ed. Glacier fluctuations and climatic change. Dordrecht. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 219233.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O.B. 1990a. A simple energy-balance model to calculate ice ablation at the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. J. Glacial., 36(123), 222228.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O.B. 1990b. Response of the energy balance on the margin of the Greenland ice sheet to temperature changes. J. Glacial., 36(123), 217221.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O.B. 1993. Seasonal variation of ice ablation at the margin of the Greenland ice sheet and its sensitivity to climate change. Qamanârssûp sermia. West Greenland. J. Glaciol., 39(132), 267274.
Finsterwalder, S. and Schunk, H. 1887. Der Suldenferner. Zeitschrift des Deutschen und Österreichischen Alpenvereins, 18, 72 89.
Gutersohn, H. 1936. Ablation und Abfluss; Untersuchungen an Gletschern der Schweizer Alpen. International Association of Scientific Hydrology Publication 23. 207222.
Haefliger, M., Steffen, K. and Fowler, C. 1993. AVHRR surface température and narrow-band albedo comparison with ground measurements for the Greenland ice sheet. Ann. Glaciol., 17, 4954.
Hoinkes, H. and Steinacker, R. 1975. Hydrometeorological implications of the mass balance of Hintereisferner, 1952–53 to 1968–69. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 104 (General Assembly of Moscow 1971 — Snow and Ice). 144149.
Huybrechts, P., Letréguilly, A. and Reeh, N. 1991. The Greenland ice sheet and greenhouse warming. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoctimatol., Palaeoecol., 89(4), 399412.
Jóhannesson, T., Sigurosson, O. Laumann, T. and Kennett, M. 1993. Degree-day glacier mass balance modelling with applications to glaciers in Iceland and Norway. Reykjavík, Orkustofnun. (Nordic Hydrological Programme Report 33.)
Kasser, P. 1959. Der Einflua von Gletscherrückgang und Gletschervorstoss auf den Wasserhaushalt. Waste-und Energiewirtschaft. 51(6), 155168.
Konzelmann, T. and Braithwaite, R.J. 1995. Variations of ablation, albedo and energy balance at the margin of the Greenland ice sheet, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. J. Glaciol. 41(137), 174−182.
Krenke, A.N. 1975. Climatic conditions of present-day glaciation in Soviet Central Asia. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 104 (General Assembly of Moscow 1971 — Snow and Ice), 3041.
Kuhn, M. 1987. Micro-meteorological conditions for snow melt. J. Glaciol., 33(113), 2426.
Kuusisto, E. 1984. Snow accumulation and snowmelt in Finland. Helsinki. National Board of Waters. Water Research Institute. (Publication 55.)
Lang, H., Schädler, B. and Davidson, G. 1977. Hydroglaciological investigations on the Ewigschneefeld — Gr. Aletschgletscher. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 12(2). 1976. 109124.
Laumann, T. and Reeh, N. 1993. Sensitivity to climate change of the mass balance of glaciers in southern Norway. J. Giaciol., 39(133), 656665.
Letréguilly, Α. Huybrechts, P. and Reeh, N. 1991. Steady-state characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet under different climates. J. Glaciol., 37(125), 149157.
Loewe, F. 1971. Considerations on the origin of the Quaternary ice sheet of North America. Arct. Alp. Res., 3(4), 33344.
Oerlemans, J. and Vugts, Η.F. 1993. A meteorological experiment in the melting zone of the Greenland ire sheet. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 74(3), 355365.
Ohmura, A. 1981. Climate and energy balance on Arctic tundra. Axel Heiberg Island. Canadian Archcipelago, spring and summer 1969. 1970 and 1972. Zürcher Geogr. Schr., 3
Ohmura, Α. Kasser, P. and Funk, M. 1992. Climate at the equilibrium line of glaciers. J. Glaciol.. 38(130), 397411.
Ohmura, A. and 8 others. In press. Energy balance on the equilibrium line of the Greenland ice sheet. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication (Symposia of Yokohama 1993 — Snow Cover and its Interactions with Climate and Ecosystems; Processes of Mass and Energy Exchange between the Atmosphere and Polar Surface).
Olesen, O.B. and Braithwaite, R.J. 1989. Field stations for glacier climate research. West Greenland. In Oerlemans, J., ed. Glacier fluctuations and climatic change. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 207218.
Orheim, O. 1970. Glaciological investigations of Store Supphellebre. west-Norway. Nor. Polarinst. Skr. 151.
Quervain, M de. 1979. Schneedeckenablation und Gradtag im Versuchsfeld Weissfluhjoch. Eid. Tech. Hochschule, Zürich, Versuchsansi. Wasserbau. Hydrol. Glazol. Mitt. 41, 215232.
Reeh, N. 1991. Parameterization of melt rate and surface temperature on the Greenland ice sheet. Polarforschung, 59(3), 1989. 113128.
Schytt, V. 1964. Scientific results of the Swedish Glaciological Expedition to Nordaustlandet. Spitsbergen. 1957 and 1958. Geogr. Ann., 46(3), 243281.
van de Wal, R. 1992. Ice and climate. Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University.)
Wilson, W T. 1941. An outline of the thermodynamics of snow-melt. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 1941, Part 1. 182195.
Woo, M-k. and Fitzharris, B.B. 1992. Reconstruction of mass balance variations for Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand, 1913–1989. Arcl. Alp. Res., 24(4), 281290.

Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling

  • Roger J. Braithwaite (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed