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Ice Forces

  • Per Tryde (a1)

Abstract

When large masses of ice, for example in the form of glaciers or floating ice fields, are moving against an obstruction, either natural or man-made, huge forces will develop. It is possible to derive formulae to estimate these forces from elementary mechanics of the rupture of ice. The basic formula may be written: F = ϕ(C)rced, where ϕ(C) is a function of the geometrical and physical parameters of the system, rc is the compression strength of the ice, e is the thickness of the ice, and d is the width of the structure. The paper deals with the different types of rupture patterns that may develop in front of either vertical or inclined faces, and formulae are given for some typical cases.

Résumé

Forces de glace. Lorsque de grandes masses de glace, par exemple sous forme de glaciers ou de champs de glaces flottantes, se meuvent et se heurtent à un obstacle, naturel ou construit par l'homme, d'énormes forces sont développées. Il est possible de tirer des formules pour estimer des forces sur la base de la mécanique élémentaire des ruptures de la glace. La formule de base peut s'écrire: F = ϕ(C)rced ou ϕ(C) est une fonction de paramètres géométriques et physiques du système, rc est la rc résistance à la compression de la glace, e est l'épaisseur de la glace, et d est la largeur de la structure. Cet article examine les différents types de ruptures qui peuvent se développer devant des façades verticales ou inclinées et on donne des formules pour quelques cas typiques.

Zusammenfassung

Eiskräfte. Wenn grosse Massen von Eis, z.B. in Form von Gletschern oder schwimmenden Eisfeldern, sich gegen ein natürliches oder künstliches Hindernis bewegen, entwickeln sich starke Kräfte. Mit Hilfe der grundlegenden Bruchmechanik für Eis lassen sich Formeln ableiten, mit denen diese Kräfte abgeschätzt werden können. Die Grundgleichungen lassen sich folgendermassen schreiben: F = ϕ(C)rced, wobein ϕ(C) eine Funktion der geometrischen und physikalischen Parameter des Systems, rc die Druckfestigkeit des Eises, e die Eisdicke und d die Breite d es Hindernisses bedeutet. Die Arbeit behandelt die verschiedenen Typen von Bruchmustern, die sich vor einer senkrechten oder geneigten Fläche bilden können, und gibt die Formeln für einige typische Fälle.

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References

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Ice Forces

  • Per Tryde (a1)

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